Rail-oriented Development - Potential, Impact, Policies
ENDEMANN P, City of Ettlingen Planning Department and MULLER G, Research Institute for Urban and Regional Development of the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
In theory the strategies how to reduce motorised traffic are clearly laid out. Backbone is a careful land-use planning which adheres to the principles of density, mixed-use and the right location (cf. e.g. Apel et. al. 1997, Holz-Rau 1997, TEST 1992). Reg
In theory the strategies how to reduce motorised traffic are clearly laid out. Backbone is a careful land-use planning which adheres to the principles of density, mixed-use and the right location (cf. e.g. Apel et. al. 1997, Holz-Rau 1997, TEST 1992). Regarding density, a higher concentration of housing and workplaces conserves space by keeping a compact urban form. Thus, distances can be kept lower, which enhances the chances for the sustainable modes of transport. A planning of settlements that gives priority to concentrated coverage types (e.g. multi-family housing or semi-detached houses on small lots) contributes to this principle. Mixed-use avoids a spatial separation of uses (housing, workplaces, supply of goods and services, leisure) within a city area, which has long been part of the general orientation of city planners and produced a massive need for (motorised) transport. For the "right" location several criteria have been established: cornerstone for sustainable mobility is a certainly a good accessibility of facilities by non motodsed means and by public transport.
A strict consideration of these principles in land-use planning would help on the way to the compact city. But frankly, the power of the master planner to devise settlements and channel development and land-use into a "good" direction has weakened. Economic factors such as the land market or political influence such as tax deductions to foster the single family home have at least an equal impact. Although land-use planning is still a very necessary contribution to a sustainable transport, is it also a sufficient one?
Due to a growing number of (single) households, increasing budgets for housing, a rise in establishing housing property and a differentiation of lifestyles the average consumption of living space is constantly rising. From 1960 to 1998 the average living space per person has risen from 19 m 2 to 39 m 2 (in the former territory of Germany) and is currently increasing by 0,5 m 2 per year. This leads to a higher demand of building land, although the German population has been stable in the last years. The demand for housing mainly manifests outside the centres of the agglomerations where land is more affordable - especially when regarding the unbroken wish to purchase a single detached house. Fig. 1 shows that the highest increase of inhabitants in North Rhine-Westphalia in the 90's took place between the axis, in the more rural parts of the state, which are by far the most dependent on the automobile. (Reutter, Unger 1998).
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