Evaluation of the Mobility Effects of New Dwelling Locations
WILMINK I and HILBERS H, TNO Inro and LEUTSCHER C, Ministry of Transport (AVV), The Netherlands
During the last decades mobility aspects has always played a significant role in spatial planning in the Netherlands. This is also true for the current building activities, which are based on the Fourth National Report on Physical Planning Extra published
During the last decades mobility aspects has always played a significant role in spatial planning in the Netherlands. This is also true for the current building activities, which are based on the Fourth National Report on Physical Planning Extra published in 1990. Based on this report, 635.000 new houses are being build between 1995 and 2005. In the selection of the locations, proximity to existing towns and good accessibility by public transport were important criteria, to reduce unnecessary car use, one of the main goals of this report. Then selected new dwelling locations based on this document are known as 'VINEX-Iocations'.
Nowadays, there are serious doubts about the mobility effects of these new locations. Is car use reduced or not? What should we learn from it for the next genreration of building locations, which are prepared today?
This was the reason that the Ministry of Transport and the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment commissioned a study into the mobility effects of the VINEX-Iocations. TNO Into carried out a first study, called 'MEMOVIN' (Methodology for the Evaluation of MObility on VINex-locations) in 1998, developing a methodology to assess the mobility effects [Hilbers, 1999a]. In 1999, the methodology was applied for the first time. This was possible because most of the larger VINEX-Iocations had come into use by then. The policy directives from the Fourth National Report on Physical Planning could be confronted with the actual mobility patterns of the inhabitants of the VINEX-Iocations. The results were to be used in upcoming plans: the Fifth National Report on Physical Planning, the National Traffic and Transportation Plan and the Housing in the 21 = Century Document. To prepare the new policy documents, insight into the effects of the prevailing policy is necessary.
The methodology offers insight into the question whether either element can be found back in the travel behaviour of inhabitants of the VINEX-Iocations. Do locations inside towns result in more favourable travel patterns than locations just outside towns? Do VINEX-Iocations in urban areas score better than locations outside urban areas (the non-VINEX-Iocations)? What is the impact of good public transport? The answers to these questions cannot be separated from the answer to the next question: are differences in travel behaviour the result of differences in situation and accessibility of the location, or do personal characteristics play a role as well? Is the composition of the population at the VINEX-Iocations inside towns different in such a way that the differences can be explained predominantly by that, instead of by the effect of situation and accessibility, as supposed in policy? The study addresses these and other questions.
Association for European Transport