A New Regional Economic Model for European Transport Corridor Studies
JIN Y and WILLIAMS I N, Marcial Echenique and Partners, UK
The series of PTRC annual conferences which have evolved into the ETC, have played a significant role in the development of operational regional economic modelling applications for transport studies. One of the pioneering works in this area is Williams an
The series of PTRC annual conferences which have evolved into the ETC, have played a significant role in the development of operational regional economic modelling applications for transport studies. One of the pioneering works in this area is Williams and Echenique (1978), which was presented in the PTRC summer annual meeting of that year. Since then, such work has further progressed and increasingly been noted for its potential in addressing some of the outstanding problems in transport demand forecasting and in the assessment of the impact of transport upon the regional and local economies.
The current paper reports on a new version of such a regional economic model, developed with practical data in the Trans-Pennine area of the UK. The work is part of the EUNET project within the Fourth Framework Research Programme of the European Commission. The modelling exercise is focused on the development of new model structures and techniques that are adaptable for multimodal transport corddor studies in the European context. Across Europe, both policy focus and data availability differ from region to region. For this reason, the EUNET approach makes use of a modular building block strategy, in such a way that different modelling applications may select appropriate building blocks, and within each building block, a suitable level of technical sophistication. The Trens-Pennine model reported here represents a full use of the modular building blocks and a relatively high level of use of modelling techniques within the majority of the building blocks. However, it goes without saying that, as a particular UK example, it reflects only part of the wider EUNET approach.
A regional economic model represents on the one hand the industries as producers of goods and services end the employers of labour, and on the other hand the households as final consumers of goods and services and the suppliers of labour. It extends the conventional input-output (IO) analysis in two ways: first, the I0 analysis includes employees and households explicitly in a manner similar to the social accounting matrix (SAM) approach; secondly, it allows industdes end households to locate in different geographical areas such that the spatial interactions between them, and hence the demand for transport, are represented on an origin-destination basis.
It is useful, at the outset, to note the similadties and differences between a regional economic model and a land use model in the context of transport studies. A full land use model should include the regional economic model as one of its components. The land use model also includes land or floorspace as an explicit attractor or constraint to the choice of industrial or residential location. In other words, a regional economic model acts as a core component within a full land use model for the purposes of simulating the I0 relationships among industries and between industries and households. Due to resource constraints in a practical implementation it may not be possible or desirable for a land use model to include all elements of the regional economic model. However, for large scale strategic studies, where the inter- connections of production and consumption of the regional economy must be taken into consideration, a regional economic model may provide a sound basis for developing a full land use model.
Association for European Transport