Transport Demand Management in Historic Cities
TIGHT M R and MAY A D, ITS, University of Leeds, CONNER M, University of Leeds and GERRARD W J, Leeds University Business School, UK
This paper reports on a research project which was designed to investigate the effectiveness of a range of demand management strategies applied to three case study historic cities: Cambridge, Norwich and York. The three cities are all members of the Histo
This paper reports on a research project which was designed to investigate the effectiveness of a range of demand management strategies applied to three case study historic cities: Cambridge, Norwich and York. The three cities are all members of the Historic Towns Forum, and hence onesin which the pressures for environmental enhancement are particularly great. The cities have different levels of car ownership, congestion and economic performance and the results of the study are expected to be broadly transferable to other towns and cities of similar size and within the same range of economic circumstances.
The four strategies considered were parking control, physical control, permits and road pricing. While some have been extensively researched, others have not, and there is still uncertainty on their relative ability to change travel patterns and improve the environment. Possibly the most serious barriers to implementation are their potentially adverse impacts on the local economy and the adverse public attitudes to them, both of which were investigated in this project.
The specific objectives of the project were to assess the effectiveness of such strategies through:
* predicting the travel responses to, and the traffic and environmental impacts of the four methods;
* assessing the perceived and predicted effects on the urban economy of these travel, traffic and environmental impacts;
* investigating public attitudes to the four methods and to their predicted effects.
The outcome of the project was intended to be guidance on the potential for application of the four methods, their future development and implementation of the enabling technologies.
The research was timely in that it coincided with the increasing recognition, that, particularly in sensitive urban environments, there is a need for measures which will reduce the overall amount of traffic. Documents such as the Royal Commission report on Transport and the Environment (RCEP, 1994) advocate a reduction in car use from 65% of urban journeys in 1994 to 50% by 2020. Enabling legislation currently before parliament would permit local authorities to implement levies on private workplace parking and road pricing, and the Department of Environment Transport and the Regions (DETR) has established a Charging Development Partnership to help implement this.
Association for European Transport