The Costs and Benefits of Enlargement of the EU in the Transport Sector
GRIFFITHS T and EVANS R, Halcrow Fox, UK
The European Union is currently considering expansion to include a number of countries in Central and Eastern Europe. This expansion will inevitably impact on the countries that become members of the EU and the Single Market.~There will be benefits from i
The European Union is currently considering expansion to include a number of countries in Central and Eastern Europe. This expansion will inevitably impact on the countries that become members of the EU and the Single Market.~There will be benefits from increases in international trade and inward investment. There will also be costs from the introduction of EU legislation and improvements to institutions and infrastructure.
This paper summarises the results of a 12-month study 1 funded by the Phare Multi-ccuntry Transport Programme, an EU body set up to facilitate technical and-financial co-operation with the countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The principal objective of the study was to identify the costs and benefits in the transport sector of the accession of ten Central and Eastern Europe countries; Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The study was concerned only with those costs and benefits accruing to the accession countries and excluded any impacts on existing Member States.
Three core areas of impacts were identified from accession:
* legislation - from the introduction of the current body of EU Regulations and Directives
* institutions - full compliance with EU legislation requires that the appropriate institutions for enforcing legislation are in place and adequately resourced
* infrastructure - the transport networks of the accession countries need to be upgraded to ensure the free movement of goods through Europe. TINA, the Transport Infrastructure Needs Assessment, an EU funded body, has produced multi-modal infrastructure investment programmes for all candidate countries to ensure the benefits of accession are maximised.
The study was carried out during 1999. This paper represents the situation at that time and does not reflect any changes that have subsequently occurred.
The paper is divided into six sections. This first section provides a general introduction to the study. The second section details the methodology used for the assessment of costs and benefits. The third, fourth and fifth sections separately identify the impacts of legislation, institutions and infrastructure. The sixth and final section brings together the impacts of accession and outlines the main conclusions of the study.
Association for European Transport