Strategies for Enhanced Walking and Cycling to Work - Market Potential for Different Segments
I Stangeby and B Norheim, Institute of Transport Economics (TOI), NO
The use and dependency of cars in everyday life is increasing. Even for short trips, the use of a car is the most usual way to travel. A number of short trips by car can be replaced by modes like walking andcycling. WALCYNG was a project in EU?s Fourth Framework Programme which had the purpose to identify conditions and measures that may be used to encourage the replacement of short car trips with pedestrian and bicycle traffic. One part of this project was a Stated Preference survey among commuters in Oslo were the market potential and effect of different measures were investigated. 392 respondents who had a real choice between driving, walking or using a bicycle were interviewed. One important measure was an increased parking fee at work. This measure has been implemented just before Christmas at the institute of Transport Economics (TOI) in Oslo, with a daily fee of NOK 20 (approx 2,4 Euro). This paper will present the results from the SP-survey compared to the actual mode choice.
The SP-study indicated that the trips to work and to sports and exercise are easiest replaceable by bicycle. Respectively, 22 per cent and 20 per cent of the commuters interviewed would easily replace these short car trips with bicycle. Grocery shopping trips could most easily be replaced by walking. Short trips by car for delivering or fetching someone, like children to kindergarten, are very difficult to replace by walking or cycling.
Commuters who usually drive their car and never cycle to work had the highest resistance for changing from car to bike. The parking fee has to be of nearly 4,1 EURO a day to motivate a change in travel behaviour. Respondents with a company car are willing to pay a parking fee of 2,5 EURO a day before they choose to cycle rather than to drive their car to work.
Commuters with the highest resistance to shifting from car use to walking are people with a company car. They are willing to pay a parking fee of 5 EURO per day before leaving the car at home. Parking restrictions, like a reduction in the number of parking places and increased parking fees, may have a large effect on mode choice. Commuters with an indoor parking place a willing to pay a parking fee of 2,3 EURO per day before they go to work on foot.
Association for European Transport