Managing the Attractiveness of Cycling As a Long-term Modal Alternative
P Endemann, City of Ettlingen, DE
Since 1994 the City of Ettlingen (pop. 38,500) is a member of the climate alliance of European cities. In this context the city pursues a strategy of sustainable development including a local transport plan thattakes into account mutual effects of transport with the built and non-built environment. The main goal isthe reduction of 50% of all CO2-emissions of the year 1987 until 2010. Consequently, one essential measure is the promotion of car alternatives. Within the local transport plan, the part on 'Verkehr und Klimaschutz' (Transport and Climate Protection) was first ratified by the Ettlingen City Council. In there, the scenario of 'INTEGRATION' (integration of urban development and transport) is the key element among the goals of the plan. An effective strategy to cope with transport problems in a medium-sized city is the promotion of bike use as it is the backbone to reduce a considerable number of short car trips. Thus, the IFP, 'IntegriertesFahrradprojekt' (Integrated Bike Project, co-funded by the Ministry of the Environment and Transportof the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg and the County of Karlsruhe), was born aiming at implementing the goals of the local transport plan at large and especially the objectives of the part on bicycle promotion. According to them, through an integrative approach bike use should be increased and promoted as an environmental friendly and socially accepted modal alternative. Therefore, awareness among the citizens of Ettlingen should be increased steadily. From the beginning a strong public relation part and the inclusion of local partnerships have played an important role besides the improvement of infrastructure elements. The paper gives first an overview of the plan's promoted infrastructure, regulatory and mobility management objectives and their implementation within the project. As a second step, the different results of each measure are presented and evaluated regarding their effectiveness to meet the objectives set in the local transport plan.
This is followed by a presentation of a wide range of undertaken mobility management measures as wellas the different events and public awareness campaigns which were organised by the Planning Department. In there, the involvement of citizens and key persons (e.g. shop owners, police, mobility associations etc.) plays an important role and is considered indispensable for the on-going process of the project and the further promotion of bike use as a long term modal alternative. So far, the implementation of cycling infrastructure has been realised at a very early stage, so that the complete network already exists. Currently, the existing bike parking facilities are improved and enlarged. This will be finished during the first half year of 2002.
Nevertheless, users' acceptability of the measures has been monitored during the whole project process. Also, people's participation has been evaluated through informational campaigns, involvement during car-free days as well as through surveys.
Conclusions on travel behaviour could be drawn from the observation of bike use and survey data. They show potentials for modal shift. Moreover, qualitative as well as quantitative results are made on co-operations with different partners as mentioned above. So far, some partnerships are very promising some others less. For instance, co-operation works very well and nearly automatically with partners like the Ettlingen police department and mobility associations. Although private sector involvement generally appears to be more difficult to achieve, some health insurance companies and bike shops co-operate actively. Other businesses, however, are not getting involved, even though they might have similar interests. To improve this, a campaign with the service sector has been launched at the end of 2001 and will lead into the organisation of public awareness days within the end of spring. Newest results will be presented in the paper to be submitted by June 2002.
The overall conclusion of the paper is that full 'INTEGRATION' of cycling as a modal alternative is possible when decision makers get together at a very early stage as it was done through the implementation of a city-wide project group accompanying the on-going process from the beginning which allowed that measures were accepted by a large consensus. Although soft measures such as informational, awareness campaigns, co-operations are quite difficult toreach they are indispensable. This is evidenced by a lack of knowledge about opportunities to use bikein everyday life (e.g. access to shopping facilities, home-to-work travel through better information or shower facilities at the workplace).
Association for European Transport