Impacts from Different Land-use Strategies on Travel Distances
L Christensen and M Fosgerau, Danish Transport Research Institute, DK
Transport generated by residences and workplaces is dependent on the localisation in the city and its surroundings. Not only the transport kilometres but also car ownership and modal split is dependent on the exact location. Knowledge of these dependencies is useful in a planning policy to reduce CO2 emission from traffic.
Data from the Danish National Travel Survey is used to analyse transport behaviour of residences and workplaces in the Copenhagen Region up to 100 km from the City Centre. Linear regression and logistic regression analyses are carried out on person kilometres, car ownership, and vehicle kilometres etc. dependent on the localisation of the residence together with socio-economic variables. Alike it is used on the travel distance, the probability to go to work, and the vehicle kilometres on travels to work. The analyses on residences show that the most important parameter is the distance to the city centre of Copenhagen. The more central the lower CO2 emission will be the effect. All parameters are leading tothis result. A dwelling 28 kilometres from central Copenhagen will generate twice as much car traffic asa similar dwelling with the same household in central Copenhagen. Outside 28 kilometres, which is at the edge of the suburbs, the vehicle kilometres are not dependent on the distance to the city. But a dwelling in a town with more than 10,000 inhabitants generates only 50% more car kilometres than a dwelling at a central location. Localisation in villages and the rural areas are increasing the environmental impact. Inside the city both person kilometres and car kilometres are lower around a station, areas which are often dense and with shopping centres. But the effect is much smaller than the effect of the other parameters. Garden cities lead to a bit more person kilometres but less car kilometres than the more dense areas do.
The result of the analyses of the location of work places is some more complex. A peripheral location results in long distances but a central location does the same. The linear regression analysis of the location distance from the city centre together with socio-economic variables shows no clear location strategy for a reduction of travel distances between work and residence. But analyses on the car kilometres show very clear results. A workplace 29 kilometres from Copenhagen City centre generates3 times as many car kilometres on travel to work as a workplace in central Copenhagen. A location within 5 minutes walk from a station reduces car kilometres to work with 40% in relation to work places farther away from a station. When deciding whether you should give priority to residential areas or business at an actual area, more facts have to be considered. One problem is that a residence and a workplace generate different person kilometres and the square miles they occupy vary. It seems best to give priority to residential areas in the central areas and to business around the stations but further analyses on this question will bepresented in the paper.
Association for European Transport