Long Term Socio-economic and Other External Network Effects of Large Scale Infrastructure Investments in Urban Agglomerations
R Klementschitz, G Sammer, O Roider, ITS, University for Bodenkultur, AT
Decision for urban transport investments are based on urban transport planning and management and their evaluation is usually linked to transport related indicators (e.g. travel speed or traffic-safety). However, such investments have wider external socio-economic effects throughout the region and throughout time. The TranSEcon research project, funded under the fifth framework research program of the European Communion, is investigating these effects across European infrastructure investments focused on public transport (train, trolleybus, light rail and metro) but considering cycling and road traffic as well.
(2) Objectives of the Project TranSEcon
The TranSEcon research project aims to provide a qualitative and quantitative evidence regarding the existence of the direct and indirect effects and impacts of transport infrastructure investments. Long term effects of implemented large scale infrastructure investments are analysed using existing data-bases together with stakeholder interviews in 13 European case study cities. The selected case studies cover a wide range of city and intervention types (in terms of geographical distribution, city size, transport policies and investments). The research partnership involves 16 organisations (6 universities, 2 research centres, 7 consultancies) in 9 EU member states, 1 EEA country (Switzerland) and 1 accession country (Slovakia).
(3) Methodological approach of the project
The methodology is driven from a multi-disciplinary perspective requiring expertise in related fields such as: urban and regional land use planning and sustainable development planning, urban re-generation and renewal design, implementation and management, sociology, macro-economics, development economics, labour economics, political science, decision making process, organisation science and institutional development. compact cities. The latter concept has reached its limits in many Dutch cities. Experiences in other European countries can have much added value in the process of policy reorientation. Therefore a part of the paper will be dedicated to the challenge of making abstract network concepts more practical and tangible, using comparative data on strategic planning in several European cities.
One of the essential building blocks of network cities are attractive ?urban centres? that concentrate development. In The Netherlands, much effort is placed on the development of new development nodes. Examples are found in Amsterdam (at southern axis of the beltway), in Rotterdam (Kop van Zuid) but also the new town of Almere and Schiphol airport are developing into new urban centres. There are many questions about how to develop these new urban centres into attractive centres of urban life. Examples of city centre and subcentre development across Europe are used to explore alternative pathways.
Learning from good implementation: Getting plans realised
It is very difficult to integrate land-use and transport problems. Legal, institutional and financial barriers are barriers to implementation. In this part of the paper the research question how to implement integrated land-use and transport policies will be answered. This will be done through the introduction of some solutions and instruments that make it easier for land-use and transport planners to co-operate with each other.
These solutions are related to some specific problems in The Netherlands concerning land-use and transport planning. The first problem is the way how to regionalise the integration of land-use and transport planners. The paper will analyse the current weaknesses of Dutch implementation practice. After that some solutions and the relating best practices in other European cities are presented. A possible solution to regionalize integration of land-use and transport planning is for example direct collaboration and co-operation. This is seen in Lisbon where a conflict between two municipalities about the creation of a new urban area is solved by means of a special ?company? that co-ordinates and administers the project. A second general problem is how to achieve co-operation between land-use and transport planners. The paper will present some solutions and examples of best practices in European cities.
Besides the findings which are of particular relevance for current planning practice in the Netherlands, the research also resulted into a number of innovative instruments which might be of interest to future planning and implementation. The paper will present some innovative instruments that contribute to the implementation of integrated land-use and transport projects. Instruments included are the distributing of financial costs/benefits (applied in e.g. Bilbao and Münster) and the transfer of development rights (for example used in Rome).
Two types of conclusions are made. First of all the paper makes conclusion about the relevance of European practices in the field of land use and transport planning for the Dutch planning practice.
It is however explicitly our aim to extend the analysis. The Dutch planning practice is
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