Paris Region: New Trends in Everyday Mobility over Last 10 Years
Anne-Eole Meret-Conti, STIF, Laurence Debrincat, STIF
12 million inhabitants live in the Paris Ile-de-France region. Thus, everyday’s mobility is a key issue to design and implement a more efficient Public Transport system as well as an overall sustainable mobility policy. The last regional survey on households’ mobility lasted from October 2009 to May 2011, and its main results were published in July 2012. When compared with previous surveys, the use of public transport, bicycle as well as car has significantly changed over the last decade.
The regional survey for households’ mobility (Enquête Globale Transport 2010) was lead by STIF (public transport authority in the Paris Ile-de-France region) and DRIEA (Ministry of transport): the survey gathered complete description of all trips made by 43,000 people (from 18,000 surveyed households).
The paper will present the main results of the study and link them to possible explanations such as transport policy but also evolution of urbanisation or sociological trends. On the one hand, the survey confirmed and quantified what most expected; on the other hand, it proved some common ideas to be mistaken.
The most striking lesson of the survey is a turn in the use of transport during the 2000’s, supported by local and regional transport policy in favour of alternative to car.
The use of car showed up stagnation after 25 years of continuous growth. Car use has decreased significantly within Paris and the inner suburbs both in volume and mode share – partly because of reduced capacities on roads (bus or cycle lanes) and parking (parking for cars and bicycles sharing system). This was compensated in the meantime by a growth of car use in the outer suburbs and rural territories, where fully motorised households are still settling in.
Mode shares have turned to walking, cycling and particularly public transport, the use of which has grown by 21% over the last decade. In Paris, ¾ of motorized trips are made by public transport. This mobility pattern is spreading to the whole dense area, which benefited from development of transport network (extended lines, new lines, higher frequency in peak as well as off peak hours).
Beyond the effect of transport policies, changes in society are reshaping mobility patterns. The survey allows also to measure changes in mobility habits, which did occur over the last 10 years:
• Generation gap is analyzed through mode use. Youngest people tend to abandon car use (driving license rate is decreasing among 15-24 year old) as they benefit from PT and NTIC whereas baby-boomers, going on retirement, use their car for achieving various leisure activities.
• Gender still have different pattern in their everyday activity, but the gap is shrinking between men and women. Even though few household activities (shopping, children escort) are achieved by men, their mobility pattern is moving closer to women’s.
• Urban sprawl leads to an increase of car use in periurban areas (This analysis is based on both sociological considerations on periurban population and mode use at a detailed geographical level).
This survey, in addition to mobility data, can provide new perspectives on society and key elements for the evaluation of public policy towards transport means and land use.
Association for European Transport