Improving Job Access in the Us, France and the Uk: Examining the Role of Transport Initiatives
S Tyler, K Lucas, TSG, University of Westminster, UK
LUCAS K, Transport Studies Group, University of Westminster, UK TYLER, S, Transport Studies Group, University of Westminster, UK
A general review of transport and social exclusion policy frameworks and programmes in the G7 countries, carried out in 2003 for the FIA Foundation, highlighted the emphasis given by many governments to access to work initiatives. In this respect, the US, France and the UK have developed, in recent years, various types of initiatives to improve access to employment opportunities, often with a view to facilitating the ?welfare to work? agenda.
This paper will report on ongoing further research in the three countries, to examine these initiatives in more detail, which has also been commissioned by the FIA Foundation. First, it outlines the different ways in which access to work problems are identified and codified. Second, it sets out the results of a review of the policy, legislative and funding frameworks relevant to welfare to work objectives, as well as those in the area of accessibility planning. This includes key national policy objectives, EU, national or state funding programmes established to meet those objectives, details of the main delivery agencies in this field and the type of partnerships that are often created to implement job access policies at the national and local levels. The review will also outline the welfare or social benefits systems relating to job seekers and those in low paid jobs, highlighting those instances where assistance is directly targeted to transport related solutions. In addition, attention will be paid to the public transport network in the areas served by the initiatives and the overall level of public transport subsidy in the US, France and the UK.
At the heart of the study will be a detailed analysis of selected job access initiatives in each of the three countries concerned. These will range in scope and type. Examples include the development of new fixed route bus services to connect communities with a high proportion of low income households to centres of employment, demand responsive services (particularly in rural areas) and providing individuals with tailored public transport information for specific journeys to work. Some of the initiatives under analysis will also include those relating to special state or employer subsidies for existing public transport services. The paper will focus on a small number of initiatives, which demonstrate the range of different approaches. For each initiative, a detailed description will be given of their objectives, sources of funding, the partners involved in their development and implementation and profiles of the people they target. Particular attention will be given to examining the costs of initiatives. Wherever possible, initial results will be presented of an assessment of their impacts, in terms of improving job access and other benefits to individual job seekers or low-income workers, as well as the wider community.
Association for European Transport