Successful Transfer Nodes (P+R) Patterns and Land Use Planning
H Kramer, H Pauwels, AVV, Ministry of Transport, NL
This paper will present results from a study that was carried out in 2004 in order to assess the state of the art with regard to P+R.
This paper will present results from a study that was carried out in 2004 in order to assess the state of the art with regard to P+R. The research was in particular aimed at four questions: under which circumstances transfer nodes or P+R can be successful, which role can P+R play in relation to location development (business estates, shopping malls, housing areas), can a network of P+R facilities be developed in a region in relation to the public transport system(s) and finally: can such a P&R network be a factor in economic and spatial land use planning.
In the nineties many studies were published about best practises in a lot of European and other western countries with regard to transfer points, carpool spots or other physical points where car drivers can (be forced to) park their car and travel further by bike, carpool , vanpool or by public transport to their destinations. Many of these studies showed that especially the larger and planned P+R sites at the crossings of motorways and light rail or other public transport routes are rarely successful. Land use and real estate planners supported by transport planners often assume that such a crossing would be a ideal focus for business estate development and area development. The interesting evaluation question afterwards is then, why is the P+R facility not so successful, and how can we make P+R still into a success.
To create P+R facilities and a build up a network such facilities is an important goal of transport policies in most of western and eastern European countries. Therefore new knowledge for transport, mobility management and land use planners is very important.
Our P+R project is part of the Dutch new mobility management policy. This policy is focusing on stimulating the private sector to develop new products and services that are tailor-made to travellers' wishes. A P+R site (small, medium or large) and a network of P+R can be seen as a new product/service if the P+R site and the network take these travellers' wishes into account. Any traveller always travels from door to door. From his departure point he wishes to travel quickly, easily and comfortable to his destination. In the Netherlands and other European countries most car travellers are only prepared to make use of the P+R facilities if the Public Transport (PT) services correspond with their individual demands.
Short description of the project and paper
Our project started with an assessment of travellers' wishes and demands. After the description of these wishes, the paper will elaborate on the three other fundamental and important aspects: spatial-transport, spatial-economic and land use. Organisational aspects will be treated in less detail because these aspects, however important, are different in every European country and correspond to the governmental an administration system.
The paper will make clear that every P+R facility, small or big, could be in principle a success. We will describe the different user target groups and their wishes and demands and will link them to marketing mix models. P+R and public transport services can only be successful if these services can be competitive to the already excellent and ever improving comfort of the car for the user.
Every transport planner knows that in principle PT cannot compete with the car. Only in specific circumstances it is possible to create a "level playing field". We will describe such circumstances, which have al lot to do with congestion in urban and metropolitan areas and with high parking charges in inner cities.
Furthermore we will show that a network of P+R can be developed. A network which comprises a lot of small, some medium-sized and only a few larger P+R facilities. Such a P+R network in a metropolitan and urban area would improve accessibility and thus could facilitate and support the economic development of the region. But some of the medium-sized or larger P+R facilities could also be a starting point for area development of business, shopping and housing estates. These developments could be linked to the spatial and transport life cycle and growth stage theories and models and also to spatial and urban planning patterns.
Association for European Transport