SMILE+: the New and Improved Dutch National Freight Model System
M Bovenkerk, TNO, Mobility and Logistics, NL
The history of the SMILE (Strategic Model Integral Logistics and Evaluation) model dates back to the beginning of the 90'ies (last century), at that time the theoretical foundations of the SMILE model were laid. This resulted in the set-up of the first version of SMILE in 1997. The main innovation that SMILE brought was the explicit treatment of warehouse location and usage within supply chains. The last years we have seen innovative approaches similar to SMILE being investigates and, in part, adopted in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the United States. In the Netherlands, recently a programme of improvements of the SMILE model was set up by assignment of the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Waterways and Public Works, which was implemented in 2003 and 2004, leading to a new version of the model. This programme included:
An improved presentation of the model output for policy making purposes;
Model improvements such as: a) stochastic assignment, b) inclusion of transport in standard load units, c) update of the base year to standard of 1998.
Extended calibration of the model based on available statistics for the different modelling stages, notably in logistic processes.
Application of a growth factor module (pivot point method) so that SMILE results can be aligned and integrated with other models and databases, such as TEM.
In the paper we treat the above mentioned improvements in detail. A key subject of the paper is the calibration process, including the related data issues, which was implemented for each modelling stage in SMILE. The calibration stage is as usual a crucial element in modelling, the lessons we can learn from SMILE+ concern the data availability for such complex models and the related design of the calibration process. These lessons should be of value in the development of innovative freight models.
Association for European Transport