A Meta-analysis to Evaluate an Effectiveness of Mobility Management in Japan and Its Comparison to the Case of EU Countries
Ayako Taniguchi, University of Tsukuba, JP: Haruna Suzuki, Tokyo Institute of Technology, JP; Satsohi Fujii, Tokyo Institute of Technology, JP
In this study, we implemented a meta-analysis across all the mobility management cases in Japan until December, 2005 to investigate numerical effectiveness. And we compared it to that in EU countries reported in the past research.
Since last 1990's, "mobility management" (MM) has collected attentions from transportation policy makers and researchers as soft transportation measure to change people's car use behavior in EU countries, Australia, USA, and Japan. Although mobility management might be defined slightly differently in different countries, every definition would include an element that it is transportation measure to induce people's voluntary behavior change, rather than forced behavior change, from car use into sustainable travel modes by providing detailed travel information and incentives, and using marketing techniques focusing each personal travel behavior.
In EU countries, there is a website named as "European platform of mobility management" to help implementation of mobility management. The website gives a lot of information such as reports of case studies, hints to implement MM. Furthermore, a conference called ECOMM (European conference of MM) has been held every year. Such website and conference seems to imply that an EU situation regarding MM becomes mature and mature in these years through several experiences of MM.
As contrast to the situation in EU countries, the Japanese first pilot study of mobility management was implemented in 1999 as a soft measure to ease traffic congestion. In 2000 - 2002, there were several studies of MM, but these were rather experiments by transportation researchers than practical policies. It can be noted that according to the meta-analysis across 10 MM cases implemented in Japan until 2002 by the two of the authors (Fujii & Taniguchi, Transport Policy, in press), the average reduction of car use by households who participated in MM was about 19%. After 2003, when a special committee to promote research and practical implementation of MM was organized in the Japanese Society of Civil Engineers, the basic concept of MM has been rapidly understood by several national governmental sections such as department of road, transportation, environment, and city planning, and local governments.
The objective of this study is to report history, current practical situation and characteristics of MM in Japan, and to implement a meta-analysis of numerical effectiveness of MM in Japan by extending the meta-analysis until 2003 by the two of the authors. For the meta-analysis, we collected all the reports and research papers of MM implemented in Japan by December, 2005, and the number of cases of MM is about 30 in total. The meta-analysis will illustrate average effectiveness of MM in Japan and determinants of effectiveness of MM. We will then compare the result of meta-analysis of MM in Japan with the results of past research of MM in EU countries reported, for example, in "Smarter Choices" by Department For Transport, UK (2004) to clarify the differences and similarities between EU countries and Japan, which would be helpful to develop better MM that would be practically useful for many courtiers in all over the world.
Association for European Transport