Managing Interaction Processes Between Land Use and Transport
Rosário Macário, CESUR - Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa & TIS.PT? Consultores em Transportes, Inovação e Sistemas, PT; Tiago Veras, CESUR - Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, PT
This paper analyzes the processes of interaction between transport and land use in the management of territory, identifying the aspects that contribute for a deficient interaction.
Land use and transport policies have been the two main streams of action to influence the spatial distribution of activities, often seen as alternatives to each other. Direct intervention on land use policy or indirect influence on land use patterns through intervention on transport policy are common actions, reason why these instruments should rather be seen as complementary to each other in the developing and shaping of sustainable urban areas.
A number of distinct aspects involve this problematique in terms of interdependence between transport and land-use policies that are both inside and outside the political and administrative system. Outside the system we have mainly the interdependence between territorial (or spatial) facts and processes associated with land use and infrastructure use. Inside the system the interdependence focus is mainly between the different approaches to planning and the need for co-ordination between the actors and policies in the different fields.
The political and administrative frameworks of a city or conurbation are influencing factors for the level of performance that is required in the interaction between these two sectors ? land-use and transport ? which despite a consensual recognition that co-ordination between them is needed are, in most cities all over the world, under different institutional settings. Despite the intensity of political statements and scientific background on the need for good performance in the interaction between these sectors, a major challenge is still today to answer the following question: ?why does the interaction between land use and transport does not work??
The object of this research work is to analyze the processes of interaction between transport and land use that occur in the ambit of management of the territory, identifying the critical aspects that have contributed for a deficient interaction between these two sectors. The current situation in many Brazilian cities, exemplified by case studies, may give us some preliminary answers, and is depicted by the inexistence of municipal entities specifically dedicated to the urban planning (in a continuous and co-ordinated way); the reactive-prone character of urban legislation (and its deficient application); the isolation and non-coordination of most interventions; and the deficiencies in the institutional structure (overlapping of attributions) and in the qualification of the technical boards.
The case studies are led in three Brazilian cities of similar dimension, Fortaleza, Belo Horizonte and Curitiba. In the comparison of case studies, the processes in the cities are identified. The similarities and differences among them are analyzed, and the performances of processes are evaluated through process indicators.
Association for European Transport