Satellite Based Tolling Systems As Telematics Platforms - Recent Trends and Activities for Safety and Management Applications
U Leinberger, Satellic Traffic Management GmbH, DE
Complex intelligent systems based on GNSS and GSM can be operated with very high security, reliability and availability even in very large fleets. It will help to improve road and transport safety significantly.
1. Satellite Tolling Systems are new and complex, but work well, are manageable and competitive
For a long time private concessionaires have been operating special small parts of the road infrastructure in many countries, e.g. tunnels, bridges or some motorways. In such cases, their investments will be rewarded by levying a toll from the users of these infrastructures. However, such ventures so far only cover very small parts of the total road infrastructure ? only single buildings or roads with very limited number of junctions with large distances between them.
For a new toll on Germany?s very large, open and very complex network of Autobahn with it?s large number of junctions and slip roads the legacy tolling schemes were obviously not an option.
For these reasons, the first Tolling System relying on satellite navigation (GNSS) was developed and put in operation. Levying toll in this system does not require road side equipment and infrastructure at every junction or segment. Rather it relies on autonomous On-Board Units (OBU) allowing the user to pay his charges automatically in the most convenient way.
This technology is a quantum leap allowing true usage-based tolling for the first time also for very large and complex road networks.
Obviously this System based on versatile On-Board Computers with GPS and later GALILEO, CALM Infrared DSRC short range communications also allowing vehicle-to-vehicle scenarios and GSM long range communications as well as a CAN-BUS interface to other in-vehicle components with in-field updatable software and data is technically capable to host many other applications.
2. Standardisation in Europe goes forward and will establish a common platform
While the road infrastructure in Europe does comply with common standards already allowing every vehicle registered and licensed in any European country and every driver to use any road, tolling systems have still a long way to go: There is a multitude of tolling regimes with incompatible technologies. The user is confronted with a multitude of different toll operators, rues, ways of payments and technologies ? and his journey is halted at many points.
To improve this unacceptable situation, the introduction of an interoperable European Electronic Tolling Service (EETS) is already a legal obligation within the EU under Directive 1004/52/EC and has been adopted in national legislation in most EU countries. On this basis, users shall get a tolling service following the principle ?one contract, one device, one payment? everywhere, starting with HGV and later for all vehicles. Not all aspects and details of EETS are described and defined in the Directive. On technological, contractual, procedural and other levels additional standardisation and regulations are required. These standards and regulations are actively pursued on a European scale. The European Commission has initiated a range of expert groups looking into all aspects. In the 6th frame program the projects CESARE III are dealing with commercial and contractual aspects and RCI (Road Charging Interoperability) is focussing on technological aspects including development of two pilot OBUs and testing their interoperability. All these activities will lead to a set of detailed CEN/ISO standards and a legal framework for EETS ? and all these activities also take into account that on this platform also other new services based on satellite navigation, GSM and DSRC communications should be enabled. These new standards will be the basis for implementation of EETS and its components and their certification against these standards. Certification procedures will of course be a central part of the standards themselves.
A short overview of the current status of these activities will be given in the first part of the presentation
3. Needs for improved road safety and regulation management
Several studies and research activities have been done or started looking into the capabilities of GNSS/GSM based systems for a range of safety and security issues and road regulation management for various types of vehicles, from commercial HGVs to coahches to cars and other smaller vehicles.
We will give a short overview of these studies in general and will then focus on studies addressing tracking & tracing, anomality and emergency alarms and road regulation management of special types of transports, namely transports of dangerous goods, transport of live animals and transports of larger groups of people in coaches. We will also shed a light on some quite comparable commercial applications already in operation in larger volumes for longer periods of time.
We will look specifically into studies addressing the useability of the EETS platform for a range of such applications and services that might become mandatory for special transports in the European Union in the future.
Association for European Transport