Rail Transit Oriented Urban Development in Dalian: Towards a New Urban Form
S Zhao, Dalian University of Technology, CN
This paper investigates the impacts of Mass Rapid Transit system on urban form in Dalian, China. It is found that the so called one-center-two-axe-three-node urban form is gradually shaped by the MRT system.
China has been experiencing dynamic urbanization and motorization process, under a rapid economic growth. During 1980-2005, the overall GDP increased by approximately 40 times, averaging around 10% growth per annum; the urban population tripled while the total population increased by 30%; the numbers of motor vehicles and motor vehicle drivers increased approximately 18 times and 33 times respectively. As a result, mobility and accessibility are declining rapidly in most of Chinese cities.
As one of the pioneers of sustainable urban development in China, Dalian, a Northeast port city, has adopted a strategic policy to enhance rail transit oriented urban development. A comprehensive rail transit plan was formed in the 1990s and updated in 2004. This paper investigates the impacts of Mass Rapid Transit system on urban form. No 3 route which connects downtown and new town concentrated industrial parks and tourism spots is targeted. Impacts in suburban areas such as decentralization (relocation) of population & employment from downtown areas and development of new town along MRT route were found. The property values & rents were also increasing along the MRT route though this impact is weak at downtown and strong in suburb. It is clear that after more than a decade's construction and operation, the so called one-center-two-axe-three-node urban form is gradually shaped by the MRT system and other related public transportation system The lessons learnt from Dalian might be attributed to (1) stronger authority and powerful leadership by former mayor and (2) less barriers to new development due to stated owned land use system (Land use right and land development right)
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