Far, Far Away - Micro-spatial Analyses of Trip Distances and Mode Choice
J Scheiner, University of Dortmund, DE
The paper presents findings on the interrelation between land-use structures, residential self-selection, and travel behaviour on the micro-scale level, with a focus on disadvantaged groups, such as individuals without access to a car and the elderly
Access to activity opportunities depends, among other factors, on the spatial distribution of such opportunities, i.e. on land-use mix and density at the place of residence. Travel behaviour and mode choice change considerably at certain thresholds of distance. Such thresholds vary with individual distance sensitivity, which itself depends on health, time budget, the availability of transport means and other factors.
Earlier work indicates that such distance thresholds are remarkably low. The overall accepted distances for foot trips are clearly below one kilometre. This is particularly true for individuals with permanent car access who tend to use the car even for short trips. To account for this, research has to put an emphasis on the small-scale differentiation of land-use structures and urban form.
The paper presents findings from a survey in ten study areas in the region of Cologne. The areas range from inner-city quarters with high density and mixed land-use to peripheral residential neighbourhoods in the urban fringe with low density. Data include a large variety of information on the individual level, including individualised measures of access to shopping and leisure opportunities, services, workplaces and the like, socio-demographics, lifestyles and attitudes, location preferences and travel behaviour.
Distance behaviour, activity frequency, mode choice and satisfaction with certain attributes of the residential location are examined. Different activities are being compared with a focus on shopping, which proved to be the activity which is most dependent on land-use mix in the immediate neighbourhood in earlier analyses.
While different urban settings and population groups are distinguished, particular focus is being put on disadvantaged groups, such as individuals without access to a car and the elderly. According to a recent debate in travel behaviour research, residential self-selection effects are accounted for by considering subjective location preferences.
The findings allow some consequences to be drawn for urban planning as well as for further research on the interrelations between land-use structures, residential self-selection, and travel behaviour. The paper adds to a fuller understanding of access problems for disadvantaged population groups.
Association for European Transport