Using Truro?s Activity Based Parking Model to Investigate Optimum Pricing for Workplace Parking Charging
P Clarke, P Davidson, R Culley, Peter Davidson Consultancy, UK
This paper describes the new model development of Truro?s Activity Based Parking Model by recasting it as a household micro-simulation and using it to forecast optimum road pricing/ workplace parking charges with a new park and ride.
The inclusion of peak spreading in the Truro Activity Based Parking Model was reported upon at ETC 2007. Since then the model has been extended to cover time period and mode choice including park and ride as well as providing a population and activity synthesiser and recasting the model as a household micro-simulation model. This extended model has recently been used in a research context, to investigate optimum pricing for road user charging and workplace parking charges with respect to the new park and ride. This new work is reported upon in this paper.
The paper describes the new parts of the model including the population synthesiser which generates every household in the study area (eg the number of adults, children, workers, car ownership etc) and how this is fed into the activity synthesiser which generates household activity patterns throughout the day for these households. Primary activities are those to which a household gives priority such as working and attending school and around which other activities are fitted. Some activities are linked with others to be performed en-route with another. Other activities lead to dropping children at school before going somewhere else. The resulting activity pattern is converted to tours ? the sequence of trips which gets the person from one activity to another. These tours are taken through the hierarchy of choice models to generate probabilities of choice, which are presented to a monte-carlo micro-simulation. The micro-simulation selects one of the alternatives as the person?s decision, which would include their mode, time period, destination, time interval and parking space. The whole set of person tours is taken through the choice model and used to build matrices, which are assigned in the usual way to produce flows on the highway and public transport networks.
The paper outlines the new uses of the model. It was used to investigate optimum pricing of car parks, with and without park and ride, with and without road use charging. The choice models allowed drivers to retime their tour in order to avoid paying a peak period road use charge. They could arrive earlier or later but if they arrived earlier they could arrive so as to get a more favourable parking space if one was available. If they arrived earlier, they could also leave work earlier, avoiding some evening peak congestion. This new work also investigates the dynamics and optimum pricing of a workplace parking charge with and without park and ride. The revenue streams included the parking revenue, the park and ride revenue, the road use charge and the workplace parking charge. The research sought to find the optimum pricing and revenue by balancing these revenue streams.
Association for European Transport