Ticket to Kyoto – Contextual Drivers for CO2 Reductions in Public Transport

Ticket to Kyoto – Contextual Drivers for CO2 Reductions in Public Transport


Helene Vergereau, Atkins, Katherine Hudson, Transport For Greater Manchester


The five public transport partners involved in the EU funded Ticket to Kyoto Project explored how they could make better use of existing and future regulations and market mechanisms to achieve further reductions in GHG emissions from their operations.


The Ticket to Kyoto Project was established to reduce CO2 emissions in public transport through more environmentally friendly behaviour and changes in infrastructure. The project’s five partners are:
• moBiel, Bielefeld, Germany;
• RATP, Paris, France;
• RET, Rotterdam, Netherlands;
• STIB (Project Lead), Brussels, Belgium; and
• TfGM, Manchester, United Kingdom.
The project runs over four years (2010 to 2014) and is being co-financed by the INTERREG IVB North West-Europe Programme. Its key goal is to “introduce the principle of low CO2 emissions as the new standard for public transport providers”.

The work on contextual drivers for CO2 reductions in public transport was undertaken under work package 4 of the Ticket to Kyoto project. This work package focuses on the interactions between public transport operators and authorities and their stakeholders, including local government, suppliers, maintenance operators, as well as the policy and legal context within which they operate.

Although there is a wide range of operational and governance models for public transport delivery across the five T2K partner cities and important differences in scale of population and public transport operations, the five partners are all influenced by a range of carbon reduction commitments (at EU, national, regional, local and the organisation’s level) and have already implemented various energy efficiency and carbon reduction measures, including new initiatives through the other T2K work packages.

Best practice examples identified across the five partners include:
• well developed carbon footprinting;
• regulations supporting better understanding of energy use and further investment in emission reduction;
• knowledge of energy consumption and energy/ carbon prices;
• inclusion of energy efficiency and carbon performance in the procurement process;
• financial incentives and disincentives for energy efficiency and carbon emission reduction;
• use of market mechanisms to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions; and
• access to funding to support energy efficiency investment.

The five partners explored options to make better use of regulation and market mechanisms to achieve further reductions in CO2 emissions from the public transport sector. Options identified through the study include:
• further development of company emission reporting and information provided to public transport users;
• improvements to business case process and guidance;
• capacity building and tools (for example, rules of thumb for carbon and whole life cost assessment) for T2K partners on energy efficiency and carbon reduction;
• raising awareness of the need for public transport to remain a low carbon option
• investigating potential EU funding sources;
• using ESCO (Energy Services Company) and EPC (Energy Performance Contracting) models;
• providing carbon neutral journeys by using the carbon markets;
• including GHG performance in procurement process and contracts;
• joint procurement of low carbon vehicles; and
• land use planning and building regulations.


Association for European Transport