Impact on Travel Demand and Performance of the Transport Network on Integrated Land-use/transport Planning Policies: Case Studies
P Coppola, A Nuzzolo, ?Tor Vergata" University of Rome, IT
At different planning level (urban vs. regional), we evaluate the impacts on travel demand and transportation network performances, of integrated Land-Use/Transport planning policies (e.g. TOD), and compare these to not-integrated Transport policies.
It is common belief that the integrated Land-Use/Transport planning policies are a mean for maximising the benefits of investment in the Transport sectors, and for promoting the cohesion and the balanced territorial growth of the European cities, i.e. strategic planning objectives of the European Union (Leipzig Charter, 2007).
By integrated Land-Use/Transport policies we mean those policies which define the guidelines of the Land use development together with the mid-long term investments in Transport infrastructures. A well-known example is represented by the TOD policies (Transit Oriented Development). Typically, these identify the area of development within a given study area, in those places which have a very high accessibility, particularly to Public Transport. In doing so, it is expected that the modal split would change towards the transit modes and, accordingly, the negative externalities of the use of the car (pollutant emission, congestion, etc) would decrease.
In principle this is correct, but there could be cases in which counterintuitive and negative effects arise. For instance, when the objectives of a balanced territorial growth is achieved by locating some activities (e.g. an university or a business district) in a low accessible periphery of the city, the length and the duration of the trips could increase over a threshold acceptable for the travellers. So, it is very important for the analyst to evaluate all the consequences of integrated Land-Use/Transport policies not only on the territorial variables, but also on the mobility (travel demand) and on the performances of the transportation system (transport supply).
In this paper we first present a methodology to assess the benefits of integrated Land-Use/Transport policies. This is based on a comprehensive modelling architecture consisting of three integrated models:
- the Travel Demand module, which, given the land-use pattern and the level of service of transportation system, simulates individual travel choices (such as tour frequency, trip distribution and mode choice) allowing to estimate the generalized travel cost and zonal accessibility;
- the Residential Location module which, given the generalized travel cost, the economic activities pattern and the housing supply, simulates the residential location choice of each worker of the study area;
- the Activity Location module which, given the accessibility of each zone and the residential location pattern estimates the amount of socioeconomic activities located in each zone.
Then, we present two case studies where such a methodology has been applied: the city of Rome and the Regione Campania, one of the 20 administrative Regions of Italy. In both cases, but at different planning level (urban vs. regional) the Public Administration has been carrying on strategic policies to decongest the most crowded urban areas, relocating some administrative functions and the public services in those areas which, in the future, will be served by new high frequency railways services.
The application of the proposed methodology has shown some interesting results and has allowed us to make some useful consideration for further strategic planning actions. This will be finally illustrated and discussed in the paper.
Association for European Transport