Applying the Eurovignette Directive for Infrastructure Costs Allocation in France
P Cousin, SETRA, French Ministry for Ecology, FR
The paper will detail the methodology that was developed in France in 2007-2008 to allocate infrastructure costs to HGV in order to set a price for road infrastructure use for HGV that would respect the Eurovignette directive.
The so-called "Eurovignette Directive" voted in June 2006 by the European Parliament and referenced as Directive UE/38/2006 sets a framework for future would-be Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) road charging system on the Trans-European Road Network (TERN). This framework is based on the principle that any new toll for HGV should be consistent with the infrastructure costs that HGV are responsible for. As a consequence, tolls for all users (HGV and light vehicles) should be calculated so that the total benefits enable the infrastructure manager to recover all infrastructure costs. Next to this basic rule, the directive allows tolls to vary in order to internalize external costs such as environmental costs or congestion costs. Finally, it is possible to define different classes of trucks, according to the amount of costs they are responsible for.
All those rules, whether they are compulsory or optional, are followed by annexes that should be applied if the member state who wants to charge an HGV for a road has not justified the toll level he wants to apply in respect to these rules. Annex II describes truck classes, according to their number of axles and their weight. Annex III defines three cost ratios between classes to represent the responsibility of each kind of truck in construction costs, maintenance costs and renewal structure costs. These ratios should be used to calculate toll ratios.
In order to check if these trucks classes are appropriate and if these ratios are suited to define tolls on the French road network, a new toll grid for HGV has to be built on the directive principles. To do so, infrastructure costs need to be assessed and appropriate classes of trucks have to be defined so that infrastructure costs could be correctly supported by the HGV that cause them. Finally, a cost allocation method has to be chosen.
The paper will detail the methodology that was developed in France in 2007-2008 to solve this question and the results it gave. It will focus on the issue of costs allocation, discussing the opportunity of different methods that were studied. In order to illustrate the impacts of the different costs allocation methods, the case of pavement building costs allocation will be detailed. Finally, the paper will conclude on the advantages and weaknesses of the method that was in the end implemented to valuate HGV toll levels in France.
Key words : Road pricing ? HGV ? Eurovignette directive ? costs allocation ? pavements
Official papers :
- 2006, European Parliament and Council, Directive 2006/38/CE of the European Parliament and of the Council of May 17th amending Directive 1999/62/CE on the charging of heavy goods vehicles for the use of certain infrastructures (EUROVIGNETTE)
- 1999, European Parliament and Council, Directive 1999/62/CE on the charging of heavy goods vehicles for the use of certain infrastructures (EUROVIGNETTE)
Scientific articles :
- 2001, M. Boilé, K. Ozbay, P. Narayanan, FHWA-NJ2001-030, Infrastructrue Costs Attributable to Commercial Vehicles
- 1999, M. J. Meurer, 47 Buffalo Law Review 937-74, Fair Division
- 1998, D. M. Levinson, D. Gillen, Transportation Research, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 207-223, The Full Cost of Intercity Highway Transportation
- 1995, A. Castano-Pardo, A. Garcia_Diaz, Transportation Research, Vol. 29A, No. 3, pp. 187-203, Highway Cost Allocation: an Application of the Theory of Nonatomic Games
- 1986, S. H. Tijs, T. S. H. Diressen, Management Science, Vol.32, No. 8, pp. 1015-1028, Game Theory and Cost Allocation Problems
Association for European Transport