Logistics Facilities Impacts on the Territory ? Ratios for the French Warehouses
D Orsini, Sétra, FR
As logistics facilities are constantly getting larger and more and more concentrated, it raises more and more land planning issues. The paper will analyze the relationships between the logistics facility types and the impacts on the territory.
In France, 3 millions square meters of logistics facilities are undertaken every year. The size of these facilities has considerably increased: buildings with more than 10 000 m² of warehousing space represented 15% during the 1980-1988 period, against 40% between 1994 and 2004. Modern supply chains are more and more based on large warehouses, which allow industrialists and retailers to make economies of scale. In addition to the increase in warehouses' size, we observe a geographic concentration. For instance in 2006, 40% of the French logistics facilities market was concentrated around three cities: Paris, Lille and Lyon.
These two phenomena illustrate the logistics facilities issue: as they are constantly growing and are more and more concentrated, it raises more and more issues land planning issues. Therefore public authorities need to improve their knowledge about logistics facilities impacts in terms of vehicle traffic generation, employment, economic incomes, transport infrastructure needs, etc.
French public authorities have been increasingly concerned by these issues during the last ten years. They conducted multiple studies on this topic to help policy makers in their decisions on land planning, freight modeling and building permits authorization. Particularly many regional authorities tried to evaluate warehouses impacts by interviewing private key-players. Unfortunately their samples only contained 150 warehouses each, which did not get more than 50% of answers, thus leading to quite poor results. In addition, some difficulties arose to analyze the collected data since logistics facilities types vary (according to Wagner 2007 there are 13 sub-types of logistics facilities: European distribution center, local distribution center, national hub, multi-user warehouses?) and, as a consequence, the intensity of their impacts vary greatly.
The present paper proposes an interesting insight about these logistics facilities impacts, regrouping data collected by several regional public authorities. The aim is to improve results credibility and relevance by studying a larger sample. Also we build a new sample with 440 warehouses, described by 10 parameters (logistics facility type, employment, vehicle traffic generation, modal access?). The paper will analyze the relationships between the logistics facility types and the impacts on the territory. Ratios will be calculated for one hectare of warehouse space: trucks trips, car trips, employment, office space and land space. This study is intended to be broadly distributed within the French Ministry for Energy, Sustainable Development and Town Planning. It responds indeed to the Ministry constant urge to capitalize on the evolutions of the logistics sector.
The paper will follow a 4 parts structure :
- 1st part : Logistics facilities and land planning.
- 2nd part : Methodology and sample description.
- 3nd part : Outcomes of the 440 warehouses sample analysis
- 4rd part : Outcomes of the study for land planners
Association for European Transport