Impact of Land-side Accessibility on the Competitive Position of Airports
M Kouwenhoven, Significance, NL; E Kroes, Significance / VU University Amsterdam, NL; P Bucci, Significance, NL
In order to help airports in establishing their existing and future position, we have developed a simple strategic model that quantifies the impact of existing and future land-side accessibility scenarios.
Land-side accessibility is generally considered to be one of the key factors that influence the competitive position of an airport, together with the quality of the air network (destinations served, flight frequencies, airlines, average ticket price, etc.). With overlapping airport catchment areas, and expanding air services, competition between airports gets tougher. In these circumstances it is very important for an airport to know exactly how good or bad its land-side accessibility is, relative to its direct competitors. And how its accessibility by road and rail is likely to develop in the future, again relative to the expected developments for the competitors.
Existing models can not always be used for such an analysis. In the Netherlands, the Dutch National Model (LMS, Landelijk Model Systeem, see Daly 2000) includes detailed information about surface transport to/from Schiphol, but it does not include traffic flows to the other regional airports, since these are aggregated with other flows in the same region. Furthermore, it does not include a taxi mode, which is an important access mode for airports.
Specific airport models, such as AEOLUS (formerly known as ACCM, Airport Catchment area and Competition Model, see Kouwenhoven et al. 2006) include the accessibility of airports (both Schiphol and regional airports), but they focus on the impacts of capacity constraints at airports. They can be used to simulate the impact of land-side accessibility changes, but only at a high level of aggregation (e.g. average travel time changes within a region).
In order to help airports in establishing their existing and future position, we have developed a simple strategic model that quantifies the impact of existing and future land-side accessibility scenarios. This model combines the detailed surface transport information from the LMS with the specific airport information from the AEOLUS model. This new model estimates the strength of the airport accessibility relative to its direct competitors, and indicates whether the catchment area is increasing or decreasing. Standard accessibility terms such as travel times and costs are included, but the model also allows for the inclusion of travel time reliability terms. The geographical information of the results allow for detailed graphs and movies to demonstrate changes in competitive positions.
The model can also be used to demonstrate the effects of the airport specific taxes, such as security charges. We will demonstrate the simulated effects of the Dutch ticket tax which was introduced in July 2008. We will compare the results with the AEOLUS forecast and the effects observed in reality.
Daly, A.J. (2000) National models, in D.A. Hensher and K.J. Button (eds.), Handbook of Transport Modelling, Elsevier Science, Oxford.
Kouwenhoven, M., Kroes E. & Veldhuis (2006) J. Welfare effects of capacity constraints at Schiphol airport ? a new model to forecast air demand European Transport Conference, Strassbourg
Association for European Transport