Transportation/economic Development Interaction: Russia's Case Within the Pan-European Framework
SHLIKHTER S, Institute of Geography, Russia
Usually the transportation tasks are defined as covering the needs of the economy and population in haulage, as well as lowering the transport expences. This was also the principle of former Soviet authorities. Since 30-s the main task of transport as a b
Usually the transportation tasks are defined as covering the needs of the economy and population in haulage, as well as lowering the transport expences. This was also the principle of former Soviet authorities. Since 30-s the main task of transport as a branch of material production was to support the industrialization process, the opening-up of Northern and Eastern areas, the collectivisation of agriculture. Functioning in the isolated framework (even now foreign trade goods carriage counts in Russia only to 3%, while in Germany - about 40%) the transport system was determined to move enormous amount of bulk freight on long distances following the goal of concentration and monopolization of production, of shifting the economy eastward.
The tariff system was also determined to cover these tasks. As to the social functions i.e. passenger traffic - here the aproach of labour supply for production process was prevailing.
Transport development in Russia was obviously lagging behind the industrial growth.
Subsidization of bulk cargo tariffs as well as high concentration of transport flows, predominance of railways and pipelines transport in the modal split deprive the transport sector of the status of equal right partner of the productive process.
The situation worsened due to the lack of competitive environment, to the monopolization tendency (30% of all industrial output have been produced on the unique enterprices), to the absence of alternative transport and industrial decision
The available geo-economical space did not create incentives to the search for different versions of allocation and sectoral development. The Russian transport system essentially served a rigidly fixed development scheme being based upon autarchian principles.
The western experience showed that the new market demand in the post-industrial economies is connected with the inter- and intrasectoral and spatial restructuring. The transport system as well derived at this stage a new functions by turning into a propulsive sector ot~the economy. But this is possible by the restructuring, by changing of priorities of development and of goals. The determinated factor becomes the quality of transport services. The propulsive role appears as a complicated distributive and logistic system which determines the shifts and allocations of productive branches, appearence of new and re-typing of existing industrial centers.
Association for European Transport