Societal, Mobility and Third Party Effects of Demand Responsive Local Public Transport in Rural Areas
R Klementschitz, D Wurz, University Bodenhultur, AT
Ex post analysis of demand responsive local public transport service and its effect on people´s mobility including its consequences towards society and environment. Additionally the results are compared with an area with no such service available.
Out-migration and long distance commuting for remaining inhabitants go hand in hand with a deterioration of social and supply infrastructure such as supermarkets, bars or restaurants in rural areas. This tightens the economic situation for existing public transport service and for inhabitants especially those without access to a car. Demand responsive transport seems to be a promising answer to ensure basic mobility needs for regions with a minimum of public funding needs. Under the umbrella of the INTERREG IVc project FLIPPER (Flexible Transport Services and ICT platform for Eco-Mobility in urban and rural European areas) it is investigated, which are the effects of the implementation of demand responsive local public transport services in rural areas. The Institute of Transport Studies in Vienna is full project partner and responsible for analyses in two rural areas in Austria. Whereas in one area (Purbach, province of Burgenland) a demand responsive local public transport scheme is running since 2006 (called as GmoaBus), in the second region (Defereggental, province of Tyrol) no such service is implemented yet, but there is a strong desire for it by the local municipalities and inhabitants. This framework condition makes it possible to carry out a comparative and standardised mobility survey in spring 2010 to understand the differences in the daily mobility of the inhabitants in the two areas with its different public transport supply situation. Comparative analyses will be made in cohorts, the mobility of young and senior citizens as the main user group of such a service are of special interest. In 2009 a demand responsive transport user survey was carried out in Purbach to explore the origins and destinations of the trips, the trip purpose and other mobility data. On average, the GmoaBus service transports 22000 passengers per year with a yearly car mileage of 65,000 km. In comparison to the overall transport demand curves of the inhabitants of the municipality, the demand curve of the demand responsive service users shows a different picture. Peak time of the demand is between 9.00 and 11.00 hours and ? with lower values - in the evening between 16.00 and 19.00 hours. This effect can be explained by the different distribution of trip purposes. Main trip purpose is leisure (usually evening times on workday) followed by shopping (before midday if not employed and evening again). If additionally the age classes are analysed, one can explore the differences to the general age distribution of all the inhabitants of the municipality. There is a clear bias towards elderly passengers. There is a clear bias in gender as well, the majority of the passengers are female passengers. Additionally the big majority of the passengers are not able to use a car for the trip carried out. Either those passengers are not possessing a driving licence or they are holding a driving licence but have no access to a car (together more than 70%). Users were asked for their alternatives, especially if there would have been no such service in their area. From these answers social exclusion and third party effects can be identified. People are carrying out only necessary trips and are reducing their leisure mobility if transport supply restraints their habits. Local shopkeepers and restaurant holders lose clients which can lead to closures in extreme cases; a vicious circle will be started. For unavoidable trips (visiting the doctor, go to bank office, do shopping daily goods) people need more lifts from relatives and friends, which cause additional emissions and reduce the time resources of those concerned. From the data collected, a concept and demand estimation including a description of the positive effects expected will be developed for the Defereggental.
Association for European Transport