Adopting Policies on Spatial Planning, Public Transport Planning or Road Pricing to Influence Travel and Transport: What Can Be Expected?
D Snellen, H Hilbers, P voor de Leefomgeving, Netherlands Environmental Assesment Agency, NL
This paper discusses the effectiveness of policies on spatial planning, public transport and road pricing for reducing travel and congestion and improving accessibility, giving policy makers guidance in assessing the merits of different policies.
For many years policy makers on spatial planning and transport planning aim to steer, guide, reduce or otherwise influence travel and transport. In this paper we look at the effects that some direct of more indirect policy strategies have on (the development) of travel and transport. We draw on our earlier studies in this field and give an overview of findings and conclusions. In the field of spatial mobility policies, we will look at the results of the Dutch VINEX-policy (e.g. compact cities, new developments within, directly adjacent to of otherwise close to existing urban areas, focus on density, land use mix and public transport facilities) and of the ABC-location policy for businesses and facilities. Furthermore, we will assess the effect of increasing public transport supply on travel patterns: will this lead to substitution of car trips of merely to more travel. And which strategies are worthwhile and robust? Finally, we will look at road pricing. What can be achieved? What does it entail for the accessibility in our country? And how about regional differences in pain and effectiveness?
We will show that the effect of spatial mobility policies on travel, transport and accessibility is modest. Concentration of urban development has a small but positive effect, in the sense that it reduces kilometres travelled and improves accessibility. The main effect of better public transport supply is better public transport accessibility and more use of public transport. The effect on car use, congestion and effects such as safety, emissions and noise is very limited. Auxiliary policies such as road pricing, prove to be much more influential on travel behaviour than spatial or infrastructural interventions. Road pricing will lead to a substantial decrease of car use, a reduction of congestion and positive effects on safety, noise and emissions. However, it also brings about prosperity loss due to drop in demand and reduced accessibility (less destinations within reach).
Association for European Transport