Pedestrian Microsimulation of Metro-bus Interchanges. A Case Study in Santiago de Chile
R Fernández, S Seriani, Universidad de los Andes,CL
The objective of this research was to analyse by means of pedestrian microsimulation metro-bus interchange spaces in order to propose design guidelines, taking as case study Santiago de Chile.
Metro stations are not just a single node in a transport network, but also a place within the city. In this sense, some authors define a metro station as a "node-place", understanding ?node? as an access point to underground trains and other transport modes and ?place? as a specific part of the city with a concentration of infrastructure, buildings and public spaces. In this way metro stations are complex urban places which must solve the problems of mobility as well as connectivity and integration between the station and the surrounding urban area. As a node-place there are at least five pedestrian circulation spaces: the train-platform space, the platform-stair space, the concourse, complementary ? e.g., shopping ? space, and the city.
Despite the complexity of this type of urban places it has been observed in developing countries a lack of design guidelines for metro stations and surrounding areas. For example, Metro de Santiago S.A. makes use of microsimulation to study pedestrian movements. However, these models are only used to analyse the circulation within the area of administration of the metro company; i.e., inside stations. This approach considers the station as an isolated project, so it ignores the problems produced outside such as access points, pedestrian paths, metro-bus interchanges, etc.
To solve the above deficiency the objective of this research was to analyse by means of pedestrian microsimulation metro-bus interchange spaces in order to propose design guidelines, taking as case study Santiago de Chile. Specific objectives are (a) to identify the variables that provide greater efficiency and safety in those spaces; (b) to simulate different scenarios using the pedestrian simulation model LEGION; (c) to propose design guidelines for pedestrian spaces at metro-bus interchanges; and (d) to implement the recommendations to the recently opened terminal station on Line 1 of Metro de Santiago: Los Domínicos Station.
Results of this study are divided into two parts. The first part corresponds to the development of design recommendations according to each pedestrian circulation space. For example, for the train-platform space it is recommended a platform of 4-meters width if 100% of passengers get off the train at once (about 1500 passengers); for the platform-stairs space it is suggested to provide two exit stairs if the number of passenger getting off the train reaches 50% its capacity; for the concourse space more than seven turnstiles or two groups of four turnstiles should be provided for an unloading of 25% the train capacity; for complementary space it is recommended a commercial corridor of 7.5-m width for the same passenger demand (bidirectional flow); finally for the city space a sidewalk width greater than 7.0 m near the station accesses is recommended (bidirectional flow). The second part of results consists of the application of these recommendations to Los Domínicos Station in Santiago de Chile. Accordingly, it was found that for the base scenario the demand is not big enough to cause conflict between pedestrians and their environment, leading to a pedestrian level of service between A and C. However, in a scenario that considers a feeder tram project, conflicts arise in the platform-stairs space, concourse space, and complementary space, reducing the pedestrian level of service to C or even E. In such a case the station will require the use of our design recommendations to work properly.
To conclude, this study will allow engineers and architects to identifying conflicts, analysing pedestrian movements and classifying them by space, and checking if that circulation elements satisfy the passenger demand.
Association for European Transport