Can Mobility Management Campaigning Contribute to a Pro-environmental Behaviour in General?
L Hiselius, Lund University. SE
This paper seeks to analyse if and how Mobility Management measures (promoting sustainable transport and manage demand for car use) contribute to more reflexive individuals regarding environmental effects of travel behaviour.
"Mobility Management (MM) is a concept to promote sustainable transport and manage the demand for car use by changing travellers? attitudes and behaviour. Typical MM measures are information and communication, campaigns encouraging to sustainable travel habits, organising services and coordinating activities of different partners. This type of ?voluntary measures? can be argued as to only have a limited impact on carbon emissions. At the same time great importance can be attached to these measures when making ways to other less voluntary measures.
A prerequisite for voluntary measures to work is that individuals start reflecting on his or her behaviour. And even if this process of individualising both ways and consequences may be seen as a prioritised part of modernity there is still a huge amount of work left in finding the way to a concept of responsible mobility taking.
There is thus in interest in measures that can contribute to a carbon conscious individual, i.e. an individual that reflects over her own travel behaviour. According to Beck (1986) ?reflexivity means awareness of risks and unintended consequences?. In Beckman (2002) the concept of reflexive mobility is described as ?reflexive mobility captures those motilities that are self-critical. In other words motilities that takes a more critical stance towards their own unintended consequences?.
This paper seeks to analyse if and how MM measures contributes to a more reflexive individual when it comes to the environmental effects of ones travel behaviour. Helping the citizen to understand the environmental problems of unsustainable transport behaviour may be seen as the precondition of changing it. However, a change in travel behaviour dose not necessary means that that a specific attitude has changed. The reflection may very well not take place at all or take place after the behavioural change.
In the first part of this paper a theoretical framework is discussed relating a number of issues; motivators/drivers of change, ideas of behavioural change and reflexivity and spillover effects.
In the second part of the paper two case studies are presented. In the case studies former car commuters are studied when changing to either bike or public transport. Their attitudes and consciousness regarding environmental effects are studied before, during and after taking part in a campaign for sustainable travel habits in two cities in Sweden. The results of the case studies are then discussed in light of the theoretical framework developed.
In the final part a discussion is outlined regarding if and what type of reflexivity we can assume MM measures stimulates. Is the reflexivity connected to the transport behaviour as a whole or just modifying one specific part of their travel patterns?
The study is financed within LETS, Low-Carbon Energy and Transport Systems for 2050, a multidisciplinary research program at Lund University, Sweden. The reaserch area looks among other things at implications of ?soft? policy and voluntary instruments, as complements to regulation and market based instruments."
Association for European Transport