Sustainable Goods Supply and Transport in Conurbations: Analysis of Freight Developments and Strategies
M Ruesch, P Hegi, C Petz, Rapp Trans Ltd, CH; U Haefeli, D Matti, Interface, CH; B Schultz, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH; P Rütsche, ETH Zurich, CH
Urban freight has been investigated, key factors and sustainability indicators derived, an evaluation frame for measures developed, meas-ures and strategies for more sustainable goods supply and transport carried out and assessed.
Road Freight transport increased in the last decades dramatically and forecasts show that this development has not come to an end. The negative aspects of growth are visible in all the Euro-pean conurbations: traffic jams with contribution of trucks and lorries, noise, pollution and acci-dents are problems which reduce the quality of life in urban areas substantially.
Different methods have been used as literature analysis, data analysis, written inquiries and interviews, workshops, scenario methodology, multi criteria analysis and strategic measures de-velopment.
The today?s goods supply and transport in conurbations is not sustainable. The considerable need for action is based on the following developments:
? The freight transport intensity is increasing, resulting in an increasing share of freight transport. The relevance of freight transport relating to the utilisation rate of road and railway networks is increasing.
? The transport effort and cost for the last mile is high and increases further because of the atomisation of transport.
? The share of accidents with freight vehicles involved is increasing.
? The increasing share of freight transport leads to an increase of the share relating to noise and pollution.
? The shorter delivery intervals and transfer from trucks to lorries increase the use of area space relating the flowing and parking traffic.
? Freight transport is not enough considered in land use and town planning.
? Freight transport is compared to passenger transport neglected in public authorities.
? Today there are severe data gaps relating to the urban and regional freight transport and relating to logistics activities and facilities.
? The instruments to analyse the traffic do not consider freight transport adequately.
? The private actors are not enough integrated in the freight traffic planning process.
? The cooperation is today not sufficient related to freight aspects.
? The education of experts does not consider enough freight issues.
Within the project an evaluation frame was developed, which can be used from the view point of the authority to assess freight measures and to evaluate urban freight policies. The framework effect areas are traffic quality, traffic safety, environmental quality, urban quality and process quality.
72 measures have been listed and 28 measures have been looked at more in detail. For the improvement of the situation in conurbations not single measures are the key but a bundle of measures. The strategy line of such a bundle in conurbations is:
? To secure and increase efficiency and quality of the goods supply
? To improve the accessibility of freight transport intensive land use (incl. establishment of land use premises)
? To minimise the negative impact of freight transport
? To reduce the conflicts with passenger and pedestrian transport (incl. bicycle)
? To support and encourage the awareness for freight/logistics issues, education and inno-vation
? To improve data and modelling instruments
? To improve cooperation.
The measures have to be bundled addressing the conurbation specific problems. The implemen-tation leads to a more sustainable goods supply in conurbations. Relevant for the implementa-tion are authorities on local and regional level, but also on national level and private parties as logistics and transport service providers and shippers.
? Improvement of the urban freight data bases and statistics
? Consideration of urban freight in the running conurbation programmes
? Better organisational integration of the freight transport planning in the administration of the cities and regional authorities
? Stronger Participation of private actors in the freight planning
? Development of a national Masterplan Logistics and freight transport
? Actualisation and Extension of the developed data base with socio economic and freight data
? Integration of the knowledge in the education teaching aids at universities and the Swiss Federal institute of technology
? Implementation of actions plans in the investigated conurbations
? Development of urban freight actions plans in other conurbations
? The increasing importance of urban freight relating to transport infrastructure utilisation, emissions, space and area use and the low efficiency of the urban distributions shows the need for action. Sustainable issues have to be more considered.
? The todays goods supply and transport in Swiss conurbations is today not sustainable. Urban freight problems are neglected.
? Logistics and freight transport have to be considered more in land use and traffic planning
? A bundle of measures with main measures and supporting measures is needed to make urban freight transport more sustainable.
? Conurbation specific action plans are an important basis for a successful implementation. Responsible for the implementation are authorities on local, regional and national level. But also the logistics services providers, the transport operators and the shippers have to be taken into account.
Association for European Transport