Park-and-Ride - the View of Users and Non Users
SPEYER 1L TAYLOR B and VENN P, Swansea Institute of Higher Education, UK
A park and ride scheme is essentially an urban traffic management tool for restricting the level of motor cars entering the urban centre. In essence the process involves the provision of a car park, normally on the outer perimeter of the urban area where
A park and ride scheme is essentially an urban traffic management tool for restricting the level of motor cars entering the urban centre. In essence the process involves the provision of a car park, normally on the outer perimeter of the urban area where the motorist changes to a mode of public transport to complete their journey to the urban centre.
The development of park and ride in Great Britain started primarily in historic towns and cities, quite simply because they suffered at an earlier stage from the problems that park and ride is designed to relieve. The reasons for this are numerous, the prime ones relating to their spatial design, the radial route network and the limited feasibility of implementing major traffic management. Many other urban areas now suffer from the problems of road congestion and environmental degradation caused by the motor vehicle, thereby making park and ride a potential option in many more locations.
Park and ride schemes started to become incorporated into local authorities' overall transport strategies in the early 1970's, Oxford and Nottingham being the first cities in the United Kingdom. From this early beginning, when Saturday only schemes were operated, park and ride has evolved into full time provision. Currently there are now 26 full time (Monday to Saturday) schemes in operation, 17 all year round Saturday schemes and 33 Seasonal/Pre Christmas schemes. Park and ride is now part of the transport strategy in 85 per cent of the local authorities in Great Britain with 72 per cent either expecting to expand existing park and ride sites or to introduce new schemes.
Although some schemes are undoubtedly successful, and Oxford has more than 1,000 users per day, little is known of the criteria that makes one scheme more attractive than another. Given the range of possible options for the type of scheme, a degree of knowledge is required of potential users. If for instance a scheme is proposed for full time operation then a large commuter base is likely to be required. In Winchester over 50 percent of users come from this group, Oxford has 35 percent with York, Canterbury and Shrewsbury at around 28 percent.
This paper attempts to explore the views of park and ride users and non users. A survey was undertaken with the theme of the motor car driver's opinion on aspects such as road congestion, the environment and public transport. Additional information is used from other surveys carried out by the authors and other bodies such as local authorities. From this some of the critical issues affecting the future development of park and ride will be discussed.
Association for European Transport