Emission Apportionment and Exploring Alternative National-based Policy Measures Aimed to Reduce Emissions from the Shipping Sector
P Gilbert, K Anderson, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, UK; A Bows, University of Manchester, UK
This paper investigates opportunities and barriers around accounting for shipping within national emissions inventories and national mitigation policy aimed at shipping.
Concern about climate change has come relatively late in the day to the shipping sector for a combination of reasons: more obvious local pollutants; its omission from national emissions inventories within the Kyoto Protocol; its fundamental importance in globalisation and; its reputation as the most energy efficient mode of transport. Moreover, slow progress by the International Maritime Organization to tackle shipping emissions has led the EU to threaten sub-global policies by 2013. However, if national governments take heed of the scientific evidence underpinning the global 2°C temperature target recognised within the Copenhagen Accord, all greenhouse gas emitting sectors need to decarbonise to a very high degree within only a few decades. Although the global nature of the shipping sector likely requires some global policy solutions, this does not exclude the potential for individual nations to reduce shipping emissions within their scope of influence. This paper investigates opportunities and barriers around accounting for shipping within national emissions inventories and national mitigation policy aimed at shipping. In addition, it outlines projected shipping CO2 emissions against the scale of the climate change challenge and estimates CO2 emissions for ?UK shipping? using a range of apportionment methods. The paper goes on to discuss the apportionment methods in relation to their practical use and fairness for measuring current emissions and monitoring reductions were policies to be put in place. The study uses evidence and information based on stakeholder interviews and workshops with shipping industry representatives and policymakers. Within their current remit of influence, aspects of the shipping system most appropriate for national policies include those associated with the amount of goods imported, the number of journeys, and the carbon efficiency of operations within national waters and at national ports. Devising national or sub-global mitigation polices aimed at shipping requires the use of an apportionment regime to allocate a share of global emissions. Several apportionment methods offer scope for both measuring and monitoring the emissions associated with goods, national waters and ports. When considering fairness, the current apportionment method used within UNFCCC underestimates the ?fair? proportion of shipping activity when assessing the UK. Those methods deemed to be most fair tend towards the higher estimates. Therefore, even if the UK Government does not wish to implement national mitigation policy aimed at shipping, its current national budgets and targets need to be reassessed in light of the higher estimates for the CO2 emissions from UK shipping, particularly as they could be up to six times higher than currently recorded (from 7 to 42 MtCO2). If one of the higher figures is appropriated, the UK?s 2050 target, and the stringency of cuts from other sectors will need to be adjusted to remain consistent with its commitment to the 2°C goal.
Association for European Transport