Sustainable Policy for Reducing Harmful Exhaust Emissions in Central Urban Areas - a Serbian Perspective
V Momcilovic, A Manojlovic, D Vujanovic, V Papic, University of Belgrade, RS
To reduce passenger and light good vehicles' emissions in Belgrade central areas, at first a period-based access charges are recommended, and later entry- or kilometre-based charges will be thoroughly assessed
The main idea of the project is to impose restrictions and access charging to passenger and light good vehicles (especially delivery vehicles) in the central urban area in order to reduce harmful exhaust emissions, which are significant polluters of the environment. The "environmental efficiency" of vehicles is determined by analysis of specific emissions of harmful gases (CO, CO2, NOx, SO2, Pb, CH4, VOC, NMVOC and PM). Based on the results of the previous analyses the vehicles are categorised. The objective is to directly influence reduction of traffic congestion in these areas, notably by charging inefficient vehicle categories (upon environmental efficiency) with a period based tax for the desired period of time allowing entrance to the specific urban area. Thus, the direct effect would be the traffic reduction, and therefore the emission of harmful gases in the observed area, whereas indirectly raising awareness in view of environmental efficiency whilst vehicle purchase. The current almost critical situation in terms of emissions in such urban areas is the consequence of larger and older, environmentally inefficient vehicles, as well as an increasing share in traffic of SUV's, minivans and crossover vehicles in the last decades.
In terms of light good vehicles, a partial ban was already in place in Belgrade for a long period in view of deliveries in central urban areas during peak hours. While a complete ban for those vehicles is neither feasible nor recommended as this would prevent the normal operation of retail shops, implementation of a set of measures must be proposed. A policy of charging for light goods vehicles and smaller lorries entering a "sensitive" urban area has been adopted. In the first phase, for entering the area in a given time interval will be imposed a period based fixed charge (daily, monthly or annual), and later an entrance based tax for each vehicle entry to the area during the charging interval. In the night-time, i.e. out of charging interval, the tax is not imposed, which would encourage transport operators to redistribute their plans and times of delivery (e.g. off-peak deliveries). After a certain period of implementation, the possibility of implementation, the effects and the price of the kilometre based tax charging system will be assessed. The effect of this second phase would be the reduction of entries, and planning the efficient vehicle load capacity usage in order to reduce costs for transport operators.
The main charging criterion is a specific emission per vehicle. Initial labelling (marking) of vehicles allowing entrance to the restricted area will be proposed into four categories: one category without charge (environmental-green) and three vehicle categories with progressive charge (efficient-yellow, medium-orange and inefficient-red). The criteria for determining the tariffs are based on earlier researches conducted in the respective Belgrade central area regarding: traffic and emissions per adopted vehicle categories (applying the COPERT IV model). The possible effects of the considered measures' implementation were evaluated and a timeframe, phasing and implementation methods of proposed measures are given in detail in the paper.
Association for European Transport