Assessing Passenger Intermodality in Terminal Stations: Key Factors and Indicators
S Kapros, University of Aegean; M Morfoulaki, A Papanikolaou, Hellenic Institute of Transport, GR
This paper aims at making a step further in understanding where and how passenger intermodality should be promoted in order to increase the LOS together with economic efficiency, contributing to the objectives of the EU policy.
The creation of a unified, intermodal and interoperable transport system constitutes one of the major objectives of the European transport policy as indicated in the White Paper 2011 "Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area - Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system". Towards this direction in the area of passenger transport, the notion of passenger intermodality and interconnectivity strives for the efficient utilization of all various modes of transit and thus emerges as a capable answer to the growing need for relieving traffic congestion, together with the associated environmental problems and the continuously increasing cost for transferring passengers. However promoting passenger intermodality has proven to be a rather difficult task, considering the different transport modes, interchange points, geographical scales of transport systems as well as the plethora of stakeholders involved in the transport "industry" representing the supply side.
This paper aims at making a step further in understanding where and how passenger intermodality should be promoted in order to lead in the increase of Level of Service (LOS) together with economic efficiency in the transport system, contributing to the principal objectives of the EU policy. Our rationale starts from the fact that assuming the whole transport system as a network of "links" and "nodes", we consider that passenger intermodality enhancements can result in higher impacts when applied in the "nodes" of the network, and namely in the "critical nodes" or "Terminals" that constitute major interchange points in the chain between different transport modes.
As a result, the paper zooms in the role of "Terminals" as a key component of the transport chain for the enhancement of passenger intermodality. The role of Terminals in transport networks efficiency has been widely explored in the literature as well as the significance of providing the essential conditions of comfort and security for the connection between the different means of transport has been stressed. However to date no concrete list of approved indicators or/and measures exists for assessing passenger intermodality in terminals due to the fact that all indicators are case specific and are not easily transferable.
The current work aims at deepening our understanding in the notion of "passenger intermodality" in interchange points (terminals), by developing a toolkit for the assessment of passenger intermodality in strategic level. Starting from the categorization of different transport terminals serving all kinds of transport modes? combinations, the objective of this paper is to identify the common "issues"? and particularities of each case for the achievement of passenger intermodality. More specifically it strives to understand the notion of passenger intermodality in terms of specific indicators by separating the horizontal measures of intermodality applied in all terminals, from the case specific measures which prerequisite a case specific analysis. For the general case, a set of specific indicators is proposed for the assessment of passenger intermodality in all terminals.
Some critical questions that the paper deals with are: How could one assess the level of transfer "easiness" offered in terminals? Are the passenger objectives the same in all types of terminals? Which are the indicators for evaluating the level of passenger intermodality? Are there any differences between different terminal types? Which common conclusions can be drawn and which indicators developed?
Finally the paper makes a step further, trying to shed some light in the organizational issues that emerge in the background of passenger intermodality. At this point the connection with real life practice is attempted by identifying which are the stakeholders involved (who is may concerned) and how they are affected by the enhancement of passenger intermodality and in the end examining whether the assessment of these indicators constitute valuable information (business sensitive) under purely economic criteria and thus provide a useful business case for further exploitation and market penetration.
The current work and the data used are based on a pan European survey in eleven different Terminals covering all types of modes. The survey conducted in the framework of the FP7 Project "HERMES-High Efficient and Reliable Arrangements for Cross-modal Transport" which aims at the development and analysis of new mobility schemes at the interface of transport networks of different scales and modes.
Association for European Transport