Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Forecasts in France
S Sadeghian, F Leurent, M Thebert, City, Mobility & Transport Laboratory of Ecole des Ponts-ParisTech/ Paris-Est University, FR
This study discusses investment requirements, challenges and opportunities that charging infrastructure development could represent for the electromobility system’s stakeholders.
Some analyses suggest that providing fast public charging facilities can sharply stimulate electric car purchase and consider this option as the more cost-effective policy measure comparing to a purchase subsidy of 5000 euro. The results of some other studies on drivers? preferences and rang anxiety judge private charging facilities at home as an inescapable precondition of the electromobility system?s wide dispersion. In France, more than 85% of electric car charging is anticipated to take place at home. Nevertheless, yet no real progress in charging infrastructure deployment has been made.
On one hand, it is quite a risky decision for both public and private stakeholders to get involved and make heavy investments in this new-opened market when it is still no clear whether the individual electromobility will sufficiently develop. These risks are even more pronounced for the public authorities, having to justify the utility of their expenditures. On the other hand, an adequate commercial offer providing low cost and rapid solutions and also favorable legal context need yet to be defined.
In this study, we try to throw light on the initial phase of charging infrastructure deployment in France. We aim to analyze the investment requirements, challenges and opportunities that charging system development could represent for the electromobility system?s stakeholders especially for potential electric car customers who live in apartment complex. This paper consists of a literature review on electromobility, charging infrastructure, urban planning and policies and also, the results of over 20 interviews conducted in 2011-12 with the representatives of economic actors from different activity sectors.
Within the stakeholders' analysis approach, we suppose that the electromobility system is composed of three main value chains representing its three key elements: electric vehicle, charging infrastructure and information. These value chains have strong interactions and indeed, common players. For instance, the car manufactures have already shown their determination to be involved in the charging infrastructure development and management allowing them to stay permanently in touch with their final costumers. Otherwise, the other actors from totally different sectors are motivated to be part of this new economical dynamic. They could be the existing players such as electricity providers, property developers and industrial groups specialized in electrical equipments but also new developing actors (starts up) thanks to their innovations and creative business models. We discuss also the crucial role of local authorities as a federating force through the regulations, initiatives, subsidies and other political instruments.
The conclusions issued from this part suggest a cooperative plan to promote the charging network in an area. We discuss various forms of actors' partnerships and possible ways of system entry cost reduction for some economic actors.
In the second part, we focus on battery charging problematic in apartment complex parking. We try to answer to some key questions: how can policy measures facilitate or hinder the private charging infrastructure development? What are the principal cost elements?And which financial resources can be mobilized?
Association for European Transport