BUS AND PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AT BRT STATIONS. A CASE STUDY IN SANTIAGO DE CHILE
Sebastian Seriani, Universidad De Los Andes, Rodrigo Fernandez, Universidad De Los Andes
The aim of this paper is the study of pedestrian traffic management measures at the new BRT stations in Santiago de Chile by mean of a pedestrian traffic microsimulator.
Pedestrian Traffic Management is the rational administration of the movement of people to generate adequate behaviour in the public space and improve the use of vehicle and pedestrian infrastructure.
To measure the management of pedestrian in public transport systems, Passenger Service Time (PST) can be used. The PST – also called dwell time (td) – is the time that a public transport vehicle remains stopped transferring passengers (Fernandez, 2010). It depends on the number of boarding and alighting passengers and how quickly they do it. The speed of passengers is determined by the fare collection method, number and width of doors, number and heigth of steps, internal layout of vehicles, and the density of passengers inside the vehicle.
The main application of PST models is the prediction of effects of hypothetical or future situations, so that measures can be taken to adjustment to the infrastructure design or operation of the system. Thus, if the PST is added to the acceleration t_a and braking time t_f then the occupancy time t_o is obtained at the station. Given t_o we can calculate the capacity or maximum number of vehicles that can serve a bus stop or stations: Q_E=αN/t_o, where N is the number of loading positions and is the availability of those loading positions – i.e., the proportion of the time that a loading position is available (Fernandez and Planzer, 2002). For example Fernandez (2011) shows how to get boarding and alighting times changes in density of passengers for Transantiago system obtained in Pedestrian Accessibility and Movement Environment Laboratory (PAMELA) at University College London.
Other studies related with the density of passengers were done. In a previous paper presented at the European Transport Conference, Seriani (2013) analysed the personal dissatisfaction of pedestrian and the accessibility in public transport-public space interchanges under different physical, spatial and operation configurations by means of a microsimulation model. Previously, Fernandez et al (2010) analysed by means of a pedestrian microsimulator metro-bus interchange spaces in order to propose design guidelines, taking as case study a terminal station of Metro de Santiago.
The Chilean Ministry of Transport and Telecommunication had made a contract with the Transport Studies Group of Universidad de los Andes to study the new type of BRT station called Extra Vehicular Payment Station (EPEV in Spanish). This new stations are located at the Departamental BRT, in Santiago de Chile and they have different architectural, physical and operational characteristics. The innovation in EPEV stations is focus on bringing a high standard of level of service to passengers. The stations are 60 meters long and 2.85 m wide, with a capacity of approximately 150 passengers.
The methodology used in this research is comprised in four steps. Firstly we identify the problems of EPEV stations and we classified them in three spaces: Bus-EPEV, inside EPEV, EPEV-urban space. Then we defined different scenarios of analysis. With the use of two microsimulation models we simulate those scenarios. Finally, the results were compared with the Level of Service of Fruin (1971) and will be transformed into design recommendations.
The main results of this research shows that an EPEV must operate with berths assigned to routes, because the average delay per bus is reduced by more than a third relative to no assigned berths. In addition, the delay for transfer of passengers is reduced by almost 60%. Secondly, it was found that EPEV stations should include three turnstiles for entry and only one exit door. This zone can be improved with barriers or any form of channelization of passengers. If the EPEV include urban furniture (seats and trash bins) it must be provided in spaces that don’t affect the natural pedestrian flow. In the urban space the EPEV should consider widen pedestrian crossing (more than 5 m). In relation to the best scenario, two EPEV stations with independent berths are better than one EPEV; however this requires 90 m long. It is also recommended an EPEV with a “sawtooth" bay, which requires a maximum spacing of 65 m long. Finally, it seems that the nearest interchange with other public transport modes such as metro stations should not be 30 m away from an EPEV.
Our methodology can be used by traffic engineers to apply pedestrian traffic management to any bus stop. This in turn can help in designing passenger facilities at transport infrastructures. The validation of our investigation will be performed at the Human Dynamics Laboratory (HDL) in Universidad de los Andes, Santiago de Chile.
Association for European Transport