Transporation Planning a Key Element in EcoCity Development - Analysis of Scenarios for NewBorgElArab, Egypt
Åsa Hedman, VTT, Technical Research Centre, Finland, Mohamed Shahin, Faculty of Engineering – Alexandria University, Egypt
The work has been done within the project EcoCity Capacity building in NBC funded by the Finnish Ministry of FA. The paper analyzes alternative urban planning philosophies and suggested procedure for EcoCity development of urban transport
As a result of the expansion and development of the economy in general and the improvement of standard of living in particular, demand for transport of people and goods increases and consequentially energy consumption and pollutant emissions as well. Yet the increase in the quality of life, as a result of motorization, is starting to turn into the opposite direction; i.e. deteriorating living standards. The problems of high level of motorization, inefficient use of scare fossil fuel resources, emission of harmful pollutants, and heavy traffic jams decreasing people mobility and decreasing the quality of life are linked to such an extent we can say the “transport - ecological” problem.
An EcoCity can include variety of solutions that need to be adjusted to fit the local context, local culture and local economic realities. Energy, waste and water systems, services and transportation solutions are key elements that all need to be addressed. In today’s world, mobility is a key element for most people to achieve a high quality of life. People needs should be satisfied through offering daily services locally and through sustainable transportation solutions.
Therefore, there is need for an examination of existing transport systems and for more effective design and management of the transport systems. The basic objective of a transport concept in the development of EcoCities is to create cost-effective urban and transportation policies that (a) reduce the travel demand, (b) satisfy the travel demand in a sustainable way, taking into account the needs for sustainable social and economical development.
In Egypt, rapid motorization and insufficient investments in urban transport planning, traffic management and infrastructure are creating increasing problems in terms of accidents and injury, health, noise, and congestion. All of these problems might create more interest in building new EcoCities where the people can live away from the congested areas.
The overall goals in transporation solutions in ecological urban planning are: (1) to make sure that all road users are taken into consideration in a sustainable way, and (2) to generate new human settlements along development axes in the framework of integrated land use/transportation planning.
The main objectives of this paper are: (a) analyzing the transportation’s role in the urban planning and defining the EcoCity city approaches in transport sector, (b) analyzing alternative urban planning philosophies and presenting a suggested procedure for EcoCity development of urban transport, (c) identifying the potential impacts of this procedure by being applied to Borg Al Arab city in Egypt, as a case study.
The analysis is based on the evaluation of three different scenarios for the years 2020 and 2030, that have been created within the project “EcoCity Capacity building in NBC” which is a capacity building project between E-JUST, Egypt-Japanese University of Science and Technology, and VTT, Technical Research Centrr of Finland. The scenarios are 1)business as usual 2)low cost sustainable scenario 3)high sustainability scenario. A new approach was developed, within the framework of this study, “Push-down and Push-up” with the aim of reaching the EcoCity in the transport sector.
To facilitate the calculations, an interactive computer program called “TraEco” is developed in the framework of this study. Moreover and for the aim of assisting the developing countries to produce energy and emissions models, the German-Swiss emissions model “Handbuch der Emissionsfaktoren des Strassenverkehrs” is calibrated to suite the operation conditions in Egypt. Finally, the application illustrates the technical, environmental, and economical benefits of the sustainable transport concept.
This work has been done within the project “EcoCity Capacity building in NBC” which is funded by the Finnish Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Association for European Transport