StepByStep: Learning from Differences in Mobility Behaviour: a Comparative Research Among European Cities
Wim Korver, Goudappel Coffeng, Udo Becker, TU Dresden, Veronica Schemien, TU Dresden
Mobility data were collected for 14 European cities. Within these cities 31 cases with a behavioural intervention were analysed. An assessment was made of the success of the behavioural intervention.
StepByStep: Learning from differences in mobility behaviour: a comparative research among European cities
Authors: Wim Korver (Goudappel Coffeng), Udo Becker (TU Dresden), Veronica Schemien (TU Dresden), Jacek Malasek (IBdIM) and Helen Lundblom (WSP Sweden)
The share of transport in climate emissions is still rising; to meet the targets a reduction of at least 80% in 2050 compared to 1990 is needed. The transport sector accounts for 23% of energy related CO2 emissions globally. Therefore, increased efforts in all areas are necessary to create a fair competition between modes and to initiate and facilitate the changes needed. Last, but not least the willingness of transport users to change their behaviour is a pre-condition for successful changes. For decades governments have tried to influence their citizens’ travel behaviour in an effort to encourage them to opt for sustainable alternatives to (single) car use. Effects of initiatives on mobility patterns differ from place to place: some local/regional schemes are quite successful, others are less successful or have even failed. There is a need for (more) knowledge on which policy measures are successful, how they are successfully implemented and what specific circumstances at the local/regional level prompted the success of the measure. A new research project, Step-By-Step, aims to deliver successful national and regional policies based on comparative research among mobility behaviour in 14 European cities.
The objective of the research is to identify potential successful policy measures for changing the transport behavior of people based on structural differences between cities and cultures
The uniqueness of the Step-By-Step project is that it tries to combine, or maybe even to bridge the gap between different approaches to analysing mobility behaviour. One approach is strongly quantitative: if you cannot measure it, it is not important. The advantage is that this analytical approach is transparent and easily transferable from one situation to another. However, these kind of analytical studies lead quite often to general conclusions on why the mobility behaviour is as it is. Implications for policy makers are not that easy to make. On the other hand, the behavioural psychological approach is recognizable for policy makers and connects to a more intuitive approach. However, results and analysis based on a behavioural psychological approach lack a framework to transfer the results from one situation to another. The StepByStep approach aims to get the best of both worlds: transferability and recognisability.
Within the Step-By-Step project mobility data is collected for 14 European cities (e.g. Amsterdam, Dresden, Berlin, Stockholm and Warsaw). A comparative analysis is performed resulting in a typology of cities based on their mobility characteristics. Four (initial) city clusters were distinguished: cycling oriented, transit oriented, car oriented and potential multimodal oriented. This city clusters differ on modal split, spatial structure, total mobility and environmental footprint (measured in transport related CO2 emissions).
In total 31 cases with a behavioural intervention were analysed. An assessment was made of the success of the behavioural intervention. The success factor was based on six steps (process, implementation, (quality of the) evaluation, realisation of objectives, amount of the behavioural impact and structural impact). The (first) analysis showed that successful behavioural interventions need time. And secondly that during the intervention process successful approaches are able to change there strategies.
The combination between the success factor and the typology of cities showed that it was possible to derive specific policy recommendations per city cluster. These recommendations were validated in a city workshop (with the support of Polis).
The Step By Step project was coordinated by Goudappel Coffeng. Partners were: TU Dresden, WSP Sweden and IBDiM from Poland. The main findings of the project will be presented in June 2014. The project is part of a larger research program: Stepping Stones (See also http://transport-era.net/research-calls/stepping-stones/)
Association for European Transport