Transit Oriented Development (TOD), a Comprehensive Alternative to a Public Transport Based Development, Case Study New Delhi
Nominated for The Planning for Sustainable Land Use and Transport Award
Martin Kelly, Capita, Rajat Bose, Jacobs, Saikat Bose, COWI
Preparation of transit oriented development (TOD) strategy for integration of mass transit systems and landuse developments to increase public transport mode shifts
Implementation of major mass transit projects around the globe has presented various challenges and learnings. While the need of such systems in major cities of the world has rarely been questioned, its implementation has presented different kinds of challenges based on travel patterns, mobility patterns, climate, availability of funding, local government structures, etc. Therefore, implementation of such schemes requires a comprehensive approach, especially in rapidly developing economies, where urgent infrastructure provision is clearly recognized as necessity to retain this growth.
New Delhi, the capita and one of the largest cities in India, has experienced a dramatic change in the travel behavior patterns in the city since the introduction of the Metro in 2002. The 13th largest metro system in world and the first modern transport system in India, Delhi Metro today comprises of 6 lines with a total length of 189.63 km (117.83 mi) with 142 stations. Despite the metro being accredited with increase in real estate prices along its corridors (along with increased residential/ retail development in previously remote parts of the city), its potential as a mass transit system hasn’t been fully utilised to influence desired modal shift.
With the aim of preparing adequate guidelines to increase public transport usage along metro corridors, Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) invited Capita to carry out the first of its kind Transit Oriented Development (TOD) study in Delhi for a proposed development along a section of one its key corridors. This study, also aimed at developing appropriate guidelines for all future TOD studies to be carried out for DMRC and other metro systems proposed across India.
The study covered the basic principles of urban planning, urban designing and transport planning. It also involved financial modelling, aimed at estimating the scale of returns from such a development process.
Owing to the wide ranging impact of this study, due consideration had to be given to the development proposals of the various government bodies, some of which are under the state goverment and others directly under the Government of India; to develop and adopt a practical approach acceptable to all public and private bodies alike.
The selected study area was between two key stations along the yellow line of the metro (Line connecting the centre of Delhi to Gurgaon – a satellite town located towards the south west of Delhi, which has over the years become a key national as well as international employment/ commercial centre. At present, in spite of high land values, the area is characterised by low density low quality developments, with majority of the land use requiring car-based trips. Low demand along this section has been one of the key reasons for lack of growth of metro along this corridor, despite it providing connection to some of the key employment centres within and in the immediate vicinity of the city.
As part of the study, a detailed assessment was undertaken, covering existing development pattern, land use assessment, establishing the movement pattern, identification of proposed development (Master Plans/ Zonal Plans), and collating the existing regulation and constraints. Following this base line study, the proposed TOD was developed. The proposal included area and site level proposals covering hierarchy, density and land use distribution for an area of 2km on either side of the corridor. The study also included Transport proposals covering aspects like parking, planning for feeder service via public transport/ intermediate public transport (IPT) modes (cycle rickshaws/ auto rickshaws) and guidelines for junction/ network improvements.
Other aspects of the study included developing development control guidelines and Implementation strategies as well as a broad financial estimation to access the return from such developments..
This paper will present our findings and suggest ways in which this methodology might be used in future studies aimed at providing major public transport services along key corridors.
Association for European Transport