Irregular Pedestrian Crossings’ Behaviour Analyse in Budapest

Irregular Pedestrian Crossings’ Behaviour Analyse in Budapest


Zsuzsanna KOVACS IGAZVOLGYI, PhD Student, BUTE Dept. of Highway and Railway Engineering


The paper aims to draw attention to the irregular pedestrian crossings at traffic light. I will present correlations between the reasons (time delay, length of the crossing, volume, vehicle types etc.) and the ratio of irregular crossings.


The paper aims to draw attention to the irregular pedestrians at signalised crossings. The pedestrians are vulnerable road users, yet they cause 40% of accidents at pedestrian crossings.

In 2012 there were 15174 accidents in Hungary; from these 2365 were pedestrian accidents. Some 40% of these were caused by pedestrians. This number is very high, higher than in the last 5 years. From these 940 pedestrian accidents 107 were caused by pedestrians, which mean that the pedestrian crossed the road at a red light. This is 11% of all pedestrian accidents. A significant part of pedestrians and cyclists do not know the Highway Code. The most important information is that these accidents are not just in the morning and in the evening peak hours but outside the peak hours as well. The peak hours are from 7 AM to 9 AM and from 4 PM to 6 PM in Hungary. Most of the fatal accidents happened at 2 o’clock in the afternoon which in general, marks the end of the school time and the end of the lunch time.

In the capital of Hungary 10 places were analysed at traffic light crossings in peak hours. The places are in some crowded districts of Budapest. The new results are compared with the author’s previous measurements. The aim of the research is to present the most important reasons of jaywalking. I will present correlations between the reasons (time delay, length of the crossing, volume, vehicle types) and the ratio of irregular crossings. One of my hypotheses is that increased time delay caused the irregular pedestrian crossings, but HCM2010 method gives a middle linear correlation. The time delay was calculated from the cycle time and the green time. The ratio of the green time and the cycle time provided smaller correlation. The results show that irregular crossing do not depend on the time delay only.

The ratio of the irregular crossings is higher at tram lines than at roads, the difference is more than 50%.I will analyse the risk assumed by the pedestrian when jaywalking. . Some 70% of the irregular pedestrians crossed the roads in maximum 6 seconds gap time. The average is ~7.0 seconds. The roads at the analysed places were 2 lanes wide0 thus the pedestrians can cross the road assuming a small risk in 9 second gap time (HCM, 2010). The gap time and the definition of the headway are not the same. The headway is the time between two vehicles front heads in second. There were just a few conflict situations on the video records. It is interesting that more women crossed irregularly than men. The irregular crossing is recognizable; the pedestrians watch the vehicle lanes instead of the pedestrians’ red signal. The irregular pedestrians cross the road in smaller gap time than at regular crossings. We can get more answers for the reasons of the jaywalking in a survey. In a previous questionnaire 9% of pedestrians cross always irregularly and 37% are jaywalkers only when they are in a hurry. Integrating solutions based on national and international measurements in the Hungarian standards will help reduce jaywalking.
The pedestrians cross the tram lines irregularly even if there is little time delay. There is a solution in Vienna, which can be a good practice in Budapest as well: the traffic light changes immediately to green after the tram arrives to the tram stop. In Hungary the intergreen time has to be decreased. The analysis gives recommendation for this minimal intergreen time because it depends on the length and the type of the tram vehicles.

In the analysis, al pedestrians that started crossing the road in red are considered irregular pedestrians. This analysis and the international results show that many factors influence irregular crossings. It is difficult to tell which the most important parameter is. For example the direction of the crossings (clockwise – counter clockwise) can influence the irregular crossing (Jason & Liotta, 1982), there is 60-70% difference between the ratio of the irregular crossing in the two directions. The “direction issue” will also be analysed.


Association for European Transport