The Impacts of Transport Measures on Emissions and Energy Consumption
CHIQUETTO S and BLACKLEDGE D, Transport and Travel Research Ltd, UK
Transport is a major and increasing user of energy in modem society. In the UK, energy consumption in the transport sector has increased in the last decade, and currently one third of all energy consumption is used in the transport sector (Department of T
Transport is a major and increasing user of energy in modem society. In the UK, energy consumption in the transport sector has increased in the last decade, and currently one third of all energy consumption is used in the transport sector (Department of Transport, 1995a). The situation is similar in other European countries. Transport also generates much more emission of air pollutants than any other single human activity. The contribution of road vehicles has reached 91% of the total carbon monoxide emitted nation-wide, about half of all volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides and black smoke and over a fifth of the total carbon dioxide, the primary greenhouse gas (Department of Transport, 1995a).
The reasons for such strong influence of transport on the environment and on the use of natural resources, particularly over the last decades, are: the increase in the demand for transport of people and goods, with an increase in the number of journeys undertaken and substantial growth in private car traffic, stability or decline in the use of road and rail public transport, increase in trip lengths, increase in car ownership, reductions in car occupancy and the use of larger engine size cars (Department of Transport, 1995b). These changes have arisen from changing attitudes and values in modem society as well as from new transport and mobility needs. These trends together with a consequent expansion in transport infrastructure have led to increasing pressures on the environment.
Transport policies and strategies can be implemented to promote a better use of transport facilities and reduce congestion. Also, it has been shown that a wide range of transport measures can be very effective in attenuating the impacts on the environment (Chiquetto, 1995) and on the consumption of non-renewable natural resources.
This paper presents a methodology for the estimation of the impacts of transport measures on energy savings and transport emissions, developed by Transport & Travel Research (TTR) for the JUPITER project (described below). It also presents some preliminary results from JUPITER. The methodology presented is a planning tool that could be useful to other projects with similar objectives. The outputs can be used to furnish decision-makers with information about the likely energy and emission consequences from the implementation of different transpart measures.
Association for European Transport