Effects of Parking Regulations – Results from a Choice Experiment in Norway
Arnstein, Øvrum, Ingunn Ellis, Urbanet Research
This paper reports the results of a choice experiment on effects of parking facilities and restrictions in Norway. Survey conducted during fall 2014, with 4500 respondents.
This paper reports the results of a choice experiment on effects of parking facilities and restrictions. The choice experiment was conducted as part of an internet survey during fall 2014, and the total sample consists of 4,500 adult respondents from the ten largest city regions in Norway. An important focus of the study was to compare the role of parking restrictions on three different trip purposes and destinations; commuting trips from own residence to work; leisure trips from own residence to the closest city center; and leisure trips from own residence to a shopping mall outside the city center. The respondents were divided into three groups and asked to choose between car trips to one out of these three destinations. For comparison purposes the choice experiments had similar design across the different destinations. Each respondent conducted two choice experiments (6 choices between 2 car trips in each experiment). The following factors were included: parking fee, in-vehicle travel time; the probability of having to search for parking space and associated time use; parking type; and travel time from parking space to the final destination. The willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid parking restrictions is considerably higher than the WTP to reduce in-vehicle travel time. For example, on commuting trips to work, the WTP to reduce walking time from the parking space to the final destination (walking) is 2.3 times higher than the WTP to reduce in-vehicle travel time. The WTP to avoid uncertainty about finding a parking space and associated search time is 3.9 times higher than the WTP to reduce in-vehicle travel time. Finally, introducing parking fees at work is likely the most efficient measure to reduce car use on commuting trips. For example, almost 80 percent of our sample would choose to walk 5 minutes from the parking space to the final destination over parking at the final destination with a daily parking fee at 25 Norwegian kroner (approximately 3 Euro). The analyses of this study are ongoing. The next stages of our analyses will focus on comparing results across different trip purposes and destinations, and estimating demand effects from different parking restrictions using generalized cost methodology.
Association for European Transport