Framework for Metro Station Area Accessibility Planning: Case Study of Bangalore
Gargi Ghosh, Sky Group
This paper studies accessibility in the context of stations of Bangalore Metro rail. The primary objective of the study has been to develop a framework for station area accessibility planning for stations in Bangalore.
Public transport works by concentrating passengers into specific lines of movement. Success of public transport depends on ensuring maximum use of mass transit at the same time reducing the trip length outside the long haul system. One of the ways to achieve that is to plan for a denser development around the transit nodes (Transit Oriented Development) which allow the residents in those areas to spend less time commuting outside the transit system. There are several factors that facilitate TOD, in this study the parameter of ‘accessibility’ has been researched into in the context of stations of Bangalore Metro rail. The primary objectives of the study have been to develop a framework for station area accessibility planning for stations in Bangalore.
Bangalore or Bengaluru, known as the silicon valley of the east, is located in the state of Karnataka, India. It has a population of 8.6 Million and is the 3rd city in India with an operational metro rail system. The Bangalore metro is being developed in two phases1 and 2. There are 9 reaches in Phase 1, of which Reach 1 and Reach 3 are operational. Reach 3 stations are the currents area of study. There are 10 stations – 1.Jalahalli, 2.Peenya Industry, 3.Peenya, 4.Yeshwantpur Industry, 5.Yeshwantpur, 6.Sandalsoap, 7. Mahalakhshmi, 8.Rajaji nagar, 9.Kuvempu Road and 10.Sri rampura.
For the purpose of this study ‘access’ has been defined as ‘a way or a means of traveling to or from a Metrorail station site, or to or from the station entrance’. The modes considered for the purpose of defining the framework are –a. Pedestrian access, b. Non-motorised vehicle(NMV), c. Public transport (bus service) and d. Personal vehicles. The framework consists of a set of planning solutions and a set of design solutions for the stations of Bangalore. The steps followed are a) Identify the impediments to travel in the station area; b) Identifying comprehensive solutions to augment accessibility.
The observations pertaining to identifying the impediments to travel around the station areas have been classified under ‘landuse’ and ‘travel pattern’.
• Landuse: There is a wide variation in nature of urban characteristics and travel pattern. The stations are located at a distance of 1-1.5 km along the National Highway 4 with a huge variation in landuse types between stations. Some of the station areas have a purely residential use, while some a mixed and others are purely industrial. The density is high. There are lot of unauthorised constructions with a provision of regularisation upon payment of fees. The density is further augmented by the premium FARs available around the metro stations. This has also led to high tendency of transformation from residential to commercial uses in the area. These characteristics of landuse have a direct impact on the travel pattern in the areas. The road network is unfriendly for pedestrian travel.There is a constantly changing pattern of trip generators in the area which forms major criteria for planning.
• The traffic density in the area in generally high 10000 PCU per hour due to the dense built up. There is a high share of 2 wheelers in Bangalore (25%), dis incentivising pedestrian travel. The nature of modal split in the area is also dynamic due to different and changing landuse. Residential areas have a high 2 wheeler share in the modal split while the industrial areas have a high share of HTVs. The stations are located on high speed corridor – national highway. Hence there is a challenge of augmenting pedestrian and NMV accessibility while maintaining the service level of a National Highway.
Based on these observations the project attempts at deducing a framework for planning standards and design standards for access around the station areas in Bangalore. The outcomes of the project are as follows:
1. Deducing planning standard for assessing core area and outer area for stations based on parameters.
2. Assessing adequacy of road network for the given traffic volume and density based on parameters.
3. Assessing adequacy of NMV and public transit availability around station area for access.
4. Road network design for pedestrian & NMV accessibility.
5. Design standards for pedestrian infrastructure.
6. Design standards for kiss and ride facilities.
7. Design standards for NMV facilities
8. Design standards for public transport facilities.
Although there are existing standards in India for station area planning, every urban area has its own characteristics that demands unique solutions. The project is successful in deciphering the unique demand of Bangalore and deriving a framework for planning for it.
Association for European Transport