Beyond Cleaner Technologies - a Roadmap Towards the White Paper Goal for Urban Transport
Jens Schippl, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Technology Assessment and Systems Analyis (ITAS), Henrik Gudmundsson, Technical University of Denmark, Claus Hedegaard Sørensen, Technical University of Denmark
We present and discuss a roadmap that deals with the question who needs to do what by when in order to reach the White Paper goal for clean urban transport. The “stakeholder-driven” roadmap was developed in the FP7 project TRANSFORuM.
With its 2011 White Paper the European Commission aims at guiding the European transport sector towards more competitiveness and resource-efficiency. The White paper spells out a series of very concrete but also ambitious goal for 2030 and 2050. One of the 10 goals is explicitly related to urban transport and stipulates: “Halve the use of ‘conventionally fuelled’ cars in urban transport by 2030; phase them out in cities by 2050. Achieve essentially CO2-free city logistics in major urban centres by 2030.”
With this paper we present and discuss a roadmap that deals with the question Who needs to do what by when in order to reach the White Paper goal for urban transport. The “stakeholder-driven” roadmap was developed in the FP7 project TRANSFORuM, running from 2013 to2015. Generally speaking, TRANSFORuM contributes to the transformation of the European transport system towards more competitiveness and resource-efficiency. It has done so by engaging key stakeholders in carefully moderated forum activities and through other consultation measures in order to identify their views about the related challenges, barriers, trends, opportunities and win-win potentials.
TRANSFORuM thus facilitated a discussion forum of relevant actors and stakeholders about the best ways to reach four key goals of the 2011 European White Paper on Transport - one of them being the urban goal. The project’s starting point was the underlying assumption that policy making should be based on an in-depth understanding of all stakeholders' positions and that co-ordinated action is more effective than solo attempts. The “Urban Roadmap” was produced by the project team on the basis of a series of stakeholder workshops and surveys. The paper will present the key findings, the suggested actions steps and the milestones that were identified as indicators as well as the most crucial remaining challenges.
Some of the more general key findings were that most of the stakeholders involved in the project were aware of the goal. Moreover, most of them considered the goal achievable, at least in principle. There was wide support of the view that the goal should not be pursued only with a ‘technological fix` in mind (simply replacing all conventionally fuelled cars by non-conventionally-fuelled ones) but should embrace a wider strategy, where the use of vehicles and the organisation of mobility and logistics are taken into account. Further it was emphasized, that it is not possible to find one solution that is feasible in all the 806 European cities. Accordingly, in the roadmap different potential pathways are sketched out for what we call advanced cities and starter cities. There was a broad agreement that especially in many less advanced cities it is of utmost importance to create political momentum for changes and to foster an “enabling culture” to make the ambitious targets achievable.
Among TRANSFORuM’s particularly noteworthy findings is the realization that the intensification and qualitative improvement of coordination and communication processes offers huge potential for improvement that can be tapped at relative low costs. For example, based on the stakeholder debates, the roadmap emphasizes that the overarching concerns for climate change and fuel independence must be aligned with concerns and rationales at the urban level such as improved accessibility, quality of life, safety, health, prosperity. Another finding is that replacing vehicles and fuels is important but not sufficient. Technical progress and the diffusion of innovations surely is a key-element of the White Paper goal – but the hampering factors for making use of technical progress are often of a non-technical nature.
Association for European Transport