Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans, An Analysis of the Evolution and Current Situation in Spain
Miguel A. Mozos-Blanco, Universidad Pollitecnica de Madrid, Elisa Pozo Menendez, Universidad Pollitecnica de Madrid, Rosa Arce Ruiz, TRANSyT
The main objective of this paper is to show the results of a research conducted on Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans carried out in 46 Spanish cities in order to analyse, compare and evaluate the results of these plans.
After the approval and implementation of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMP) in different cities of Spain, the evolution and the level of development of each one are still unknown. In fact, as many of them were approved before 2010, they didn’t include a precise methodology for the further analysis of the proposed and/or implemented mobility measures. So, this evaluation of the mobility plans, their results and the comparison between cities represent nowadays a challenge in many cases.
In 2011 the Spanish Law for a Sustainable Economy (Law 2/2011) was approved, which encouraged local administrations to create a SUMP. The approval of a SUMP was compulsory to local authorities to get any public funding for public transport projects. The main objectives of this plans were not only the reduction of the urban congestion and pollution, but also to encourage the citizens to change their habits so they are less car-dependent and more active in their daily trips. However, it is still necessary an evaluation to confirm that these SUMPs have represented a substantial change in terms of logistics and management of the transports and vehicles, both private and public, as well as of behaviour and habits of the citizens.
The main objective of this paper is to show the results of a research conducted on Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans carried out in 46 Spanish cities. The cities are all members of the Spanish Network of Smart Cities (Red Española de Ciudades Inteligentes -RECI-).
The analysis is structured into two main stages:
In the first phase, the 46 SMUPs are analysed, addressing the identification and evaluation of the different specifically proposed mobility measures included in plans, the degree of definition of them, the costs, the implementation programs, etc. Also, follow-up programs were discussed.
In the second phase, a questionnaire was conducted with experts and other agents and stakeholders involved in the plans that have participated in the development and implementation of each of the plans, as engineers, politicians, NGOs, consultants, etc.
This interview consists on a grid of questions, both qualitative and quantitative when possible, about surveillance, costs of the implemented actions or the elements of success, for example. These results allow us to verify and contrast the previous analysis with the experts’ opinion and experiences.
Finally, through the comparison of the results of both stages, we obtain a brief overview about the evolution of efforts to get a more sustainable mobility in Spain. With these results, we finish our study proposing some guidelines for further analysis as well as for the new SUMPs that will be approved on the following years.
Association for European Transport