Emission Free Logistics by Applying Optimal Modality Mix of Electrical Vehicles in Food Distribution: A Case of Amsterdam City
Nilesh, Amsterdam University of Applied Science, Sharma Biharie, Amsterdam University of Applied Science, Dick Van Damme, Amsterdam University of Applied Science
This paper presents a case study about analyzing food logistics in Amsterdam city. The research focuses on the finding the optimal modality mix using electrical vehicles in food distribution for the city of Amsterdam.
One of the biggest social phenomenon of the 21 century is that world cities are growing at an unprecedented rate. On the commercial side, companies are producing increasing variety of foods items. Combination of this social and commercial phenomenon has resulted in multifold increase in food logistics activities in cities. Changes in living and working pattern have also contributed to higher demand of food items in cities. Supply of food items in cities – in hotels, restaurants, houses, offices etc. – is undeniably important. Food logistics is necessary activity but also contribute to significant negative impacts especially in terms of pollution and congestion. With more than 80% of world population living in cities by 2020, food logistics is growing to be a bigger challenge for cities.
Growth in number of cities has also triggered competition between cities for attracting investment and talent. One of the most important factors deciding the competitiveness of the city is its environment. To retain or gain a competitive position in the region, cities are investigating means to be sustainable and environment-friendly. With population of around 8.5 million Amsterdam is a biggest city in the Netherlands. It is a social and financial hub of the Netherlands. Amsterdam is also one of the most famous tourist destinations attracting around 4.5 million visitor. With such large number of people living/visiting the city, the food logistics in Amsterdam is characterized by big trucks in small streets. Along with passenger transport, these trucks are prime contributors to deteriorated air quality. There have been different measures (e.g. Environmental zone, delivery restriction) implemented by the municipality of Amsterdam. However, no significant improvement is achieved with these measures.
This paper presents a case study about analyzing food logistics in Amsterdam city. The research focuses on the finding the optimal modality mix using electrical vehicles in food distribution for the city of Amsterdam. For this purpose, the food related freight is categorized in 6 different categories. Next, different types of electrical vehicles are evaluated and list of potential vehicles is prepared based on certain criteria (e.g. cost, energy use). Data about the food distribution activities is collected from interviewing wholesale distributors in the Amsterdam region. Using the data about food distribution the optimal mix of vehicles is calculated. The study gives insight into use of electrical vehicles for emission free food logistics activities. It concludes that use of optimal modality can increase load factor up to 100%. The research also discusses limiting factors to implementation of modality mix.
Association for European Transport