The Impact of Various Forms of Flexible Working on Mobility and Congestion Estimated Empirically
Han Van Der Loop, KiM Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis, Rinus Haaijer, MuConsult, Jasper Willigers, Significance
We developed and applied a new method for identifying the impact of various forms of flexible working on mobility and congestion in the Netherlands from 2000 to 2015, as based on traffic data and a 14,000 person panel survey.
As in many countries, various forms of flexible working have been introduced in the Netherlands, with the aim being to improve the performance and productivity of organisations. The Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment is interested to know the incidence rates of the various forms of flexible working in the Netherlands, as well as their impact on mobility and congestion.
This paper presents our findings on the incidence rates of and trends in the use of various forms of flexible working in the Netherlands, as well as the findings of a (new) method that provides an empirical assessment of the effects of flexible working on mobility and congestion. Surveys were performed in March 2014, 2015 and 2016 consecutively, each with a panel of approximately 14,000 working people. We have moreover related the findings to other data sources, such as the Dutch National Survey of Travel Behaviour (in Dutch: OViN) and traffic data.
The percentage of people working from home (telecommuting) in the Netherlands increased from 1% in 2000 to 26% in 2015. We estimate that the percentage of working people who altered their working hours in order to avoid car use during peak hours has increased from 9% in 2000 to 11% in 2015; the number of days per week that people alter working hours is higher than the number of days per week that people work from home. Other forms of flexible working reveal lower percentages.
Without the various forms of flexible working, the car use (in vehicle kilometres) on all roads in 2015 would be 5% larger, as compared to 2000, while the public transport use (in passenger kilometres) would have been 4% larger over the same period.
The increase in forms of flexible working did not only affect mobility, but also congestion: this paper presents the impact that forms of flexible working have had on car use and congestion on the Dutch Trunk Road Network. These effects of flexible working have been isolated from other factors, such as changes in population size, numbers of jobs, road infrastructure and public transport services.
This paper also details the driving forces behind the various forms of flexible working, using logistic regression at a micro level: the employment sector, the level of independence of the people at work, the working hours, the level of support and provisions provided by employers, the home-to-work distance, and the level of congestion.
Association for European Transport