The Development of an Integrated Technology Policy for Transport
VAN ZUYLEN H J, Transport Research Centre and VAN SCHAICK G H J, Ministry of Transport, The Netherlands
In the Netherlands the policy goals for transport have been specified and agreed nearly 10 years ago and written down in the Second Transport Structure Plan (SW-II). The plan gives policy goals formulated in maximum acceptable levels for congestion, the e
In the Netherlands the policy goals for transport have been specified and agreed nearly 10 years ago and written down in the Second Transport Structure Plan (SW-II). The plan gives policy goals formulated in maximum acceptable levels for congestion, the emissions, fuel consumption, accidents, fragmentation of land etc. At the moment it has become clear, that the present policy measures need to be strengthened in order to achieve these goals.
Many problems in traffic and transport are caused by the application of technologies and there is some logic in an approach which tries to fight the negative impacts of technologies with technology. Technological innovations in transport can solve many problems with respect to environment and safety and even congestion can be reduced with technological means.
In the SVV-II the technological approach has received only a limited attention. In order to investigate the full potential of the technological innovations a study has been made. The study project had the name INIT, Innovations Inland Transport (Slomovic et al. 1997). INIT's objective was to fred technological innovations that could help to achieve the SVV-II goals for the year 2010. The time horizon of INIT was set a few years later, to 2015, because it was not expected that the results of innovations could become visible already in 20 years. Actually, it appeared that most promising innova- tions will need even more than 25 years.
In a first phase of the project an inventory has been made of promising technological innovations. This has been done by interviews and workshops with experts from re- search, trade and industry. The innovations have been structured into concepts, i.e. ways to perform in the future certain functions in traffic and transportation. This ap- proach has been followed, because technology sec will not contribute to the policy goals. Technology has to be applied for the realisation of a certain transport function and the effect of the technology has to be assessed on a system level The concepts have been evaluated together with stakeholders and experts. In the second phase of the project the policy options have been investigated in order to learn, how the selected technological innovations could be implemented as soon and as well as possible. Also the development of policy options has been done by the Dutch Ministry of Transport together with representatives of research, trade and industry.
In the proposed policy options it has been recognised that governments do not have sufficient resources, power, skills and knowledge to implement technological innova- tions without support of society and especially of the stakeholders involved. Espe- cially the fact that innovations have to become a part of the culture and structure of the stakeholders, makes it essential to involve them. Vice versa, innovations are diffi- cult to introduce for private actors without some support of the government.
Furthermore the uncertainty and unpredictability of the innovation process make it necessary to use a flexible, iterative planning approach in which readjustments of plans, regular reformulation of R&D goals and periodical execution of Technology Surveys, Technology Assessments and Technology Foresight's.
Association for European Transport