Reducing Car Travel Through Travel Blending
ELIZABETH AMPT STEER DAVIES GLEEVE
Throughout the world there is increasing attention being focused on the negative impacts of the use of the car. Most commonly, this interest arises because of the direct link between motor vehicle use and congestion and/or air pollution. For example, it i
Throughout the world there is increasing attention being focused on the negative impacts of the use of the car. Most commonly, this interest arises because of the direct link between motor vehicle use and congestion and/or air pollution. For example, it is now common for governments to consider congestion - a concept Which is essentially very difficult to define - in terms of cost. Meanwhile, the (possibly easier to define) concept of air pollution has also gained attention and is the subject of legislation in several countries.
In the United States, Clean Air legislation and the Intermodal Surface Transport Efficiency Act (ISTEA) have combined to focus attention on the link between motor vehicle use and air quality. And in the UK, the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution (1994) suggested that transport "has become possibly the greatest environmental threat facing the UK and one of the greatest obstacles to achieving sustainable development".
World-wide there have also been other reasons pressing for a reduction of car travel including problems associated with congestion, noise pollution, time loss etc.
A variety of solution approaches have been formulated and are being !mplemented to varying degrees to address these issues. These include:
- technological improvements to the car to reduce emissions,
- construction of new infrastructure to reduce congestion or provide public transport or other aitematives to the private car, and
- other measures, excluding pi'ovision of major infrastructure, which aim to modify travel decisions. (These are sometimes referred to as 'demand management' or 'travel demand management' measures)
The last of these approaches includes a variety of measures which can be grouped into strategy areas focused on improving asset utilisation, physical rest/alnt, pricing, and urban and social changes (Wayte, 1991). This paper concerns the last of these strategy areas (urban and social changes). It describes a method aimed at changing social attitudes and making possible simultaneous (and future) changes in travel behaviour. This is done by using a personalised approach:
* measurement of current travel behaviour and
* presenting this in a simplified way to the individual
* together with personalised tips for making simple, incremental change.
Association for European Transport