Trading in Mobility Rights: is This the Way to Solve Mobility Problems?
JORRITSMA P, Ministry of Transport and MAJOOR J, KPMG-BEA, The Netherlands
Car mobility in the Netherlands is still growing and it is expected this will continue over the next few years. Despite all kind ofpnll instruments in promoting other means of transport (e.g. public transport ,cycling ) as a substitute for car trips, thes
Car mobility in the Netherlands is still growing and it is expected this will continue over the next few years. Despite all kind ofpnll instruments in promoting other means of transport (e.g. public transport ,cycling ) as a substitute for car trips, these initia- tives are hardly effective to reduce car mobility growth. Also, it is well known that in society there is limited support for the so called push instruments like road pricing, increasing fuel taxes, etc. Beside limited support there are also many doubts about the effectiveness of a policy like road pricing. The Dutch car driver is hardly sensible for pricing instruments. Research has shown that a car driver underestimates the costs of using a car and overestimates the costs of using public transport. Moreover, he or she has a lot of alternatives available like driving during peak-off hours or using the un- derlying road system. This however will not contribute to a reduction of car mobility.
On the contrary, new bottlenecks will probably emerge elsewhere. The effect of road pricing is limited to local situations and will appear only during certain periods of the day. Hence, it will have little effect on the total volume of ear mobility.
The Dutch municipalities (especially the largest) are quite successful in their parking policy, because of the higher level of service of public transport in cities compared to suburban areas, the perceived bad accessibility and quality of life problems, this parking policy is widely appreciated in society.
An explanation for the 'lack' of adequate policy measures can probably be found in the trade-off between effectiveness and efficiency of regulation on one side and social acceptability on the other. Regulatory policy measures which aim at general goals and at the same time have an element of individual flexibility will probably contribute to a higher social acceptability.
Tradable car mobility rights as an instrument of regnlating the mobility market could have important positive impacts on the reduction of car mobility and the environment. Such a measure will probably get more support from both intermediate organizations and the public.
By order of the Traffic Research Centre (AVV) of the Ministry of Transport of the Netherlands, KPMG-BEA carried out a survey into the possibilities and constraints for the trade in car mobility rights as a possible policy instrument in the future.
In this paper we shall discuss the potential for trading in car mobility rights as a regu- latory instrument in reducing the negative external effects of traffic. Firstly, the framework of the study will be described and some applications in and areas beyond the transport sector will be discussed. Secondly, a description will be given of several systems which have been developed on the basis of formulated criteria and their re- lated objectives. These systems have been tested on their potential effects, efficiency, social acceptability and maintenance. The four most feasible systems (two demand - side oriented and two supply-side oriented) will be discussed in more detail. Finally, conclusions will be drawn, threats and chances for this policy will be identified.
Association for European Transport